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David Evans

1874 - 1948 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Composer of "LUCERNA LAUDONIAE" in Voices United David Evans (b. Resolven, Glamorganshire, Wales, 1874; d. Rosllannerchrugog, Denbighshire, Wales, 1948) was an important leader in Welsh church music. Educated at Arnold College, Swansea, and at University College, Cardiff, he received a doctorate in music from Oxford University. His longest professional post was as professor of music at University College in Cardiff (1903-1939), where he organized a large music department. He was also a well-known and respected judge at Welsh hymn-singing festivals and a composer of many orchestral and choral works, anthems, service music, and hymn tunes. Bert Polman

William Hiley Bathurst

1796 - 1877 Person Name: Anon. Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "Holy Lord, our hearts prepare" in The Voice of Praise Bathurst, William Hiley , M.A., son of the Rt. Hon. Charles Bragge (afterwards Bathurst) some time M.P. for Bristol, born at Clevedale, near Bristol, Aug. 28, 1796, and educated at Winchester, and Christ Church, Oxford, graduating B.A. in 1818. From 1820 to 1852 he held the Rectory of Barwick-in-Elmet, near Leeds. Resigning the Rectory in the latter year, through his inability to reconcile his doctrinal views with the Book of Common Prayer, he retired into private life, and died at Lydney Park, Gloucestershire, Nov. 25, 1877. His works include, The Georgics of Virgil: Translated by W. H. B., 1849; Metrical Musings; or, Thoughts on Sacred Subjects in Verse, 1849; and Psalms and Hymns for Public and Private Use, 1831 (2nd ed. 1842). This last contains 141 versions of Psalms, and 206 hymns. All the latter, and many of the former are original. Of his hymns, those in most extensive use are, "Hark! the distant isles proclaim," "Holy Spirit from on high,” "Jesus, Thy Church with longing eyes,” "Eternal Spirit, by whose power," "O for a faith that will not shrink” and “O Saviour, may we never rest." In addition to these and a few others (all of which are annotated under their first lines), the following are in common use, but mainly in America:— 1. Before Thy cross, my dying Lord. Faith. 2. Before Thy mercy-seat, O Lord. Holy Scriptures. 3. Behold what unspeakable love. Heaven. 4. Does the Lord of Glory speak? Holy Scripture. 5. Ere the world with light invested. Holy Spirit. 6. Except the Lord our labours bless. Ps. cxxvii. 1. Full of weakness and of sin. The Creator Spirit desired. 8. Glory to the Almighty Father. Praise. 9. Holy Lord, our hearts prepare. Preparation for Prayer. 10. Holy Spirit from on high. Holy Spirit's direction implored. 11. How blest are they who feel the weight. Repentance. 12. How strange that souls whom Jesus feeds. Conflict. 13. How sweet it is in early youth. Youthful Piety. 14. How sweet the hour of closing day. Death. 15. Led by a Father's gentle hand. Communion of Saints 16. Lord, a better heart bestow. Lent. 17. Lord, bid the light arise. To the Holy Spirit. 18. Lord, shed Thy glory as of old. Whitsuntide. 19. Lord, what blessed consolation. Safety of the Church. 20. Lord, when our offerings we present. Offertory. 21. 0 for a beam of heavenly light. Lent. 22. 0 for that flame of living tire. Holy Spirit. 23. 0 give thanks unto the Lord. Ps. cv. 24. Shepherd of Israel, from above. On behalf of Children. 25. This day the Lord hath called His own. Sunday. 26. When the world my heart is rending. Heaven. 27. Why search ye in the narrow tomb? Ascension. 28. Ye servants of the living God. Praise. All these hymns were given in his Psalms & Hymns , &c, 1831 (Preface dated November 15th, 1830), and repeated, without alteration, in the 2nd ed., 1842. They are characterized by simplicity of language, and directness of aim; but do not in any instance rise above the ordinary level of passable hymn-writing. In some American collections Bathurst's name is contracted to "Bath," and this is regarded either as a complete surname or as a Bath Collection. The contraction was given by Bickersteth in his Christian Psalmody, 1833. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) =================== Bathurst, William H., p. 117, ii. Additional hymns from his Psalms & Hymns, 1831, are in common use as follows:— 1. Great God, when I approach Thy throne. Redemption. 2. How bright a day was that which saw. The First Sabbath. 3. How frail and fallible I am. Jesus Unchangeable. 4. In Jesus' name with one accord. Divine Worship. 5. Lord, I claim Thee for my own. Ps. lxiii. 6. Lord shew Thy glory as of old. This is not "Lord shed Thy glory, &c," as stated at p. 118, i., 18. 7. Lord, when I lift my voice to Thee. Ps. ci. 8. O Lord, defend us as of old. Ps. lxxiv. 9. O Lord, how long shall heathens hold. Ps. lxxix. 10. 0 Lord, look down with pitying eye. Intercession for the Jews. Begins with st. iv. of “0 how is Zion's glory gone." 11. Praise God, O my soul. Ps. cxlvi. 12. Saviour, at Thy feet we bow. United Prayer. 13. 'Tis past, that agonizing hour. Ascension. 14. The Lord look'd all around. Universal Corruption. 15. To the Source of every blessing. Praise to the Father. 16. What can relieve the troubled soul? Christ the Comforter. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

George William Conder

1821 - 1874 Person Name: George W. Conder Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "All Things Praise Thee" in Praise for the Lord (Expanded Edition) Conder, George William, only son of George Conder, was born at Hitchin, Herts, Nov. 30,1821. After studying at Highbury College, London, he became, in 1845, co-pastor, with Mr. Judson, of High Wycombe Congregational Church. In 1849 he succeeded the late Dr. Winter Hamilton as minister of Belgrave Chapel, Leeds, passing thence to Cheethum Hill, Manchester, in 1864, and Queen's Road, Forest Hill, London, 1870. He died at Forest Hill, Nov. 8, 1874. Whilst at Leeds he assisted in compiling the Leeds Hymn Book 1853. He also published in 1874 an Appendix to that selection to which he contribute "All things praise Thee, Lord most high," and " Lord Jesus, Shepherd of mankind." [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================ Conder, G. W. , p. 255, ii. Other hymns by him in his Appendix, 1874, are, "Now to the glorious Trinity" (Laying a Foundation Stone), and "Lord, may a sinful little child?" (A Child's Prayer). --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

Fanny Crosby

1820 - 1915 Person Name: Fanny Crosby Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "The Land To Which We Go" in The Cyber Hymnal Pseudonymns: A.V., Mrs. A. E. Andrews, Mrs. E. A. Andrews, Mrs. E. L. Andrews, James L. Black, Henrietta E. Blair, Charles Bruce, Robert Bruce, Leah Carlton, Eleanor Craddock, Lyman G. Cuyler, D.H.W., Ella Dare, Ellen Dare, Mrs. Ellen Douglass, Lizzie Edwards. Miss Grace Elliot, Grace J. Frances, Victoria Frances, Jennie Garnett, Frank Gould, H. D. K., Frances Hope, Annie L. James, Martha J. Lankton [Langton], Grace Lindsey, Maud Marion, Sallie Martin, Wilson Meade, Alice Monteith, Martha C. Oliver, Mrs. N. D. Plume, Kate Smiley, Sallie Smith, J. L. Sterling, John Sterling, Julia Sterling, Anna C. Storey, Victoria Stuart, Ida Scott Taylor, Mary R. Tilden, Mrs. J. B. Thresher, Hope Tryaway, Grace Tureman, Carrie M. Wilson, W.H.D. Frances Jane Crosby, the daughter of John and Mercy Crosby, was born in Southeast, Putnam County, N. Y., March 24, 1820. She became blind at the age of six weeks from maltreatment of her eyes during a spell of sickness. When she was eight years old she moved with her parents to Ridgefield, Conn., the family remaining there four years. At the age of fifteen she entered the New York Institution for the Blind, where she received a good education. She became a teacher in the institution in 1847, and continued her work until March 1, 1858. She taught English grammar, rhetoric and American history. This was the great developing period in her life. During the vacations of 1852 and 1853, spent at North Reading, Mass., she wrote the words to many songs for Dr. Geo. F. Root, then the teacher of music at the blind institution. Among them were, "Hazel Dell,", "The Honeysuckle Glen," "Rosalie, the Prairie Flower," "Music in the Air," "Proud World, Good-bye, I'm Going Home," "All Together", "Never Forget the Dear Ones," and others. Subsequently she wrote the words for the cantatas of The Flower Queen and The Pilgrim Fathers, all of which were very popular in their day, though it was not generally known at the time that she was the author. While teaching at the institution she met Presidents Van Buren and Tyler, Hon. Henry Clay, Governor Wm. H. Seward, General Winfield Scott, and other distinguished characters of American history. Concerning Mr. Clay, she gives the following: "When Mr. Clay came to the institution during his last visit to New York, I was selected to welcome him with a poem. Six months before he had lost a son at the battle of Monterey, and I had sent him some verses. In my address I carefully avoided any allusion to them, in order not to wound him. When I had finished he drew my arm in his, and, addressing the audience, said through his tears: 'This is not the first poem for which I am indebted to this lady. Six months ago she sent me some lines on the death of my dear son.' Both of us were overcome for a few moments. Soon, by a splendid effort, Mr. Clay recovered himself, but I could not control my tears." In connection with her meeting these notable men, we might add that Miss Fanny Crosby had the honor of being the first woman whose voice was heard publicly in the Senate Chamber at Washington. She read a poem there on one occasion. In addition to the thousands of hymns that she has written (about eight thousand poems in all), many of which have not been set to music, she has published four volumes of verses. The first was issued in 1844 and was entitled The Blind Girl, and Other Poems, a second volume, Monterey, and Other Poems, followed in 1849, and the third, A Wreath of Columbia's Flowers, in 1858. The fourth, Bells at Evening and Other Verses, with a biographical sketch by Rev. Robert Lowry, and a fine half-tone portrait, in 1897, the sales of which have reached a fourth edition. The book is published by The Biglow & Main Co., New York. Though these show the poetical bent of her mind, they have little to do with her world-wide fame. It is as a writer of Sunday-school songs and gospel hymns that she is known wherever the English language is spoken, and, in fact, wherever any other language is heard. Fanny was married March 5, 1858, to Alex. Van Alstyne, who was also a scholar in the same institution in which she was educated. She began to write Sunday-school hymns for Wm. B. Bradbury in 1864. Her first hymn, "We are going, we are going To a home beyond the skies", was written at the Ponton Hotel on Franklin Street, New York City, on February 5th of that year. This hymn was sung at Mr. Bradbury's funeral in January, 1868. Since 1864 she supported herself by writing hymns. She resided in New York City nearly all her life, where, she says, she is "a member of the Old John Street M. E. Church in good standing." She spent regular hours on certain days at the office of The Biglow & Main Co., the firm for which she did most of her writing, and for whom she has composed over four thousand hymns. Her hymns have been in great demand and have been used by many of our most popular composers, among whom may be mentioned Wm. B. Bradbury, Geo. F. Root, W. H. Doane, Rev. Robert Lowry, Ira D. Sankey, J. R. Sweney, W. J. Kirkpatrick, H. P. Main, H. P. Danks, Philip Phillips, B. G. Unseld, and others. She could compose at any time and did not need to wait for any special inspiration, and her best hymns have come on the spur of the moment. She always composed with an open book in her hand, generally a copy of Golden Hymns, held closely over her eyes, bottom side up. She learned to play on the guitar and piano while at the institution, and has a clear soprano voice. She also received a technical training in music, and for this reason she could, and did, compose airs for some of her hymns. One of these is, "Jesus, dear, I come to Thee, Thou hast said I may," both words and music of which are wonderfully sweet. "Safe in the arms of Jesus", probably one of her best known hymns, was her own favorite. Fanny loved her work, and was happy in it. She was always ready either to sympathize or join in a mirthful conversation, as the case may be. The secret of this contentment dates from her first composition at the age of eight years. "It has been the motto of my life," she says. It is: "O what a happy soul am I! Although I cannot see, I am resolved that in this world Contented I will be;" This has continued to be her philosophy. She says that had it not been for her affliction she might not have so good an education, nor so great an influence, and certainly not so fine a memory. She knows a great many portions of the Bible by heart, and had committed to memory the first four books of the Old Testament, and also the four Gospels before she was ten years of age. Her scope of subjects is wide, embracing everything from a contemplation of heaven, as in "The Bright Forever" and "The Blessed Homeland", to an appeal to the work of this world, as in "To the Work" and "Rescue the Perishing." The most of Fanny's published hymns have appeared under the name of Fanny J. Crosby or Mrs. Yan Alstyne, but quite a large number have appeared under the nom de plumes of Grace J. Frances, Mrs. C. M. Wilson, Lizzie Edwards, Ella Dale, Henrietta E. Blair, Rose Atherton, Maud Marion, Leah Carlton, nearly two hundred different names. -Biographies of Gospel Song and Hymn Writers (excerpts) ======================= Van Alstyne, Frances Jane, née Crosby, a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was born at South East, Putnam County, New York, March 24, 1823. When six weeks old she lost her sight. About 1835 she entered the New York City Institution for the Blind. On completing her training she became a teacher therein from 1847 to 1858. In 1858 she was married to Alexander Van Alstyne, a musician, who was also blind. Her first poem was published in 1831; and her first volumes of verse as A Blind Girl, and Other Poems, 1844; Monteresy, and Other Poems, 1849; and A Wreath of Columbia's Flowers, 1858. Her first hymn was "We are going, we are going" (Death and Burial), which was written for Mr. Bradbury and published in the Golden Censer, 1864. From 1853 to 1858 she wrote 20 songs, which were set to music by G. F. Root. Her songs and hymns number some 2,000 or more, and have been published mainly in several of the popular American Sunday school collections, and often under a nom de plume. About 60 have come into common use in Great Britain. The majority of these are taken from the following American collections:— i. From The Shining Star, 1864. 1. Softly on the breath of evening. Evening. ii. From Fresh Laurels, 1867. 2. Beautiful Mansions, home of the blest. Heaven. 3. Jesus the Water of Life has given. The Water of Life. 4. Light and Comfort of my soul. In Affliction. 5. There's a cry from Macedonia. Missions. 6. We are marching on with shield and banner bright. Sunday School Anniversary. iii. From Musical Leaves, 1868. 7. 0 what are you going to do, brother? Youth for God. iv. From Sabbath Carols, 1868. 8. Dark is the night, and cold the wind is blowing. Affliction anticipated. 9. Lord, at Thy mercy seat, Humbly I fall. Lent. v. From Silver Spray, 1868. 10. If I come to Jesus, He will make me glad. Peace in Jesus. 11. 'Twill not be long—our journey here. Heaven anticipated. vi. From Notes of Joy, 1869. 12. Little beams of rosy light. The Divine Father. 13. Press on! press on! a glorious throng. Pressing towards the Prize. vii. From Bright Jewels, 1869. 14. Christ the Lord is risen today, He is risen indeed. Easter. 15. Holy, holy, holy is the Lord! Sing 0 ye people, &c. Holiness of God. 16. Jesus, keep me near the Cross. Near the Cross of Christ. 17. Saviour, bless a little child. A Child's Prayer. Written Feb. 6, 1869. viii. From Songs of Devotion, 1870. 18. Pass me not, 0 gentle Saviour. Lent. Written in 1868. 19. Rescue the perishing, care for the dying. Home Missions. ix. From Pure Gold, 1871. 20. Great is Jehovah. King of kings. Greatness of God. 21. I would be Thy little lamb. The Good Shepherd. 22. Lead me to Jesus, lead me to Jesus. Desiring Jesus. 23. To the work, to the work, we are servants of God. Home Missions. 24. Why labour for treasures that rust and decay? The Fadeless Crown. x. From the Royal Diadem, 1873. 25. I am Jesus' little friend. For Infant Schools. 26. Jesus I love Thee. Loving Jesus. 27. Mourner, wheresoe'er thou art. To the Sorrowing and Penitent. Written Oct. 3, 1871. 28. Never be faint or weary. Joy in Jesus. 29. Only a step to Jesus. Invitation. xi. From Winnowed Hymns, 1873-4. 30. Loving Saviour, hear my cry. Lent. xii. From Echoes of Zion, 1874. 31. Say, where is thy refuge, my brother? Home Missions. xiii. From Songs of Grace and Glory, 1874. 32. Thou my everlasting Portion. Christ the Portion of His People. xiv. From Brightest and Best, 1875. 33. All the way my Saviour leads me. Jesus the Guide. 34. I am Thine, O Lord: I have heard Thy voice. Holiness desired. 35. O come to the Saviour, believe in His name. Invitation. Written, Sep. 7, 1874. 36. O how sweet when we mingle. Communion of Saints. Written in 1866. 37. O my Saviour, hear me. Prayer to Jesus for blessing and love. 38. Only Jesus feels and knows. Jesus the Divine Friend. 39. Revive Thy work, O Lord. Home Missions. 40. Saviour, more than life to me. Jesus All and in All. 41. To God be the glory, great things He hath done. Praise for Redemption. xv. From Calvary Songs, 1875. 42. Come, O come with thy broken heart. Invitation. xvi. From Gospel Music, 1876. 43. Here from the world we turn. Divine Worship. 44. When Jesus comes to reward His servants. Watching, xvii. From Welcome Tidings, 1877. 45. O hear my cry, be gracious now to me. For Pardon and Peace. xviii. From The Fountain of Song, 1877. 46. Lord, my trust I repose on Thee. Trusting in Jesus. xix. From Good as Gold, 1880. 47. In Thy cleft, O Rock of Ages. Safety in Jesus. 48. Sound the alarm ! let the watchman cry. Home Missions. 49. Tenderly He leads us. Christ the Leader. 50. 'Tis the blessed hour of prayer. The Hour of Prayer. In addition to these hymns, all of which are in common use in Great Britain (mainly through I. D. Sankey's Sacred Songs and Solos, the Methodist Sunday School Hymn Book, the Silver Street Sunday Scholars Companion, and other collections for Sunday schools), there are also "A blessing for you, will you take it?" (Pardon through Jesus); "My song shall be of Jesus" (Praise of Jesus); “Now, just a word for Jesus"(Home Missions); "Onward, upward, Christian soldier" (Pressing Heavenward); 44 Sinner, how thy heart is troubled" (Invitation); "'Tis a goodly, pleasant land" (Heaven anticipated); and "When the dewy light was fading" (Death anticipated). All of these are in I. D. Sankey's Sacred Songs & Solos. Mrs. Van Alstyne's most popular composition is "Safe in the arms of Jesus" (Safety in Jesus). This was written in 1868, at the request of Mr. W. H. Doane, to his well-known melody with which it is inseparably associated, and published in Bright Jewels, 1869. Mrs. Van Alstyne's hymns have sometimes been published anonymously; but the greater part are signed by a bewildering number of initials. The combined sales of the volumes of songs and hymns named above have amounted in English-speaking countries to millions of copies. Notwithstanding the immense circulation thus given to Mrs. Van Alstyne's hymns, they are, with few exceptions, very weak and poor, their simplicity and earnestness being their redeeming features. Their popularity is largely due to the melodies to which they are wedded. Since the above was in type we have found that the following are also in common use in Great Britain:— 51. Suppose the little cowslip. Value of Little Things. 52. Sweet hour of prayer. The Hour of Prayer. These are in Bradbury's Golden Chain, 1861. 53. Never lose the golden rule. Love to our Neighbours. In Bradbury's Golden Censer, 1864. 54. I will not be afraid at night. Trust in God. In Bradbury's Fresh Laurels, 1867. 55. Praise Him, praise Him, Jesus our, &c. Praise of Jesus. In Biglow & Main's Bright Jewels, 1869. 56. More like Jesus would I be. More like Jesus. In Perkins & Taylor's Songs of Salvation, 1870. 57. Behold me standing at the door. Christ at the Door. In Biglow & Main's Christian Songs, 1872. 58. If I come to Jesus. Jesus the Children's Guide. 59. Jesus, Lord, I come to Thee. Trust in Jesus. 60. Let me learn of Jesus. Jesus the Children's Friend. 61. Singing for Jesus, O singing for Jesus. Singing for Jesus. 62. There is a Name divinely sweet Holy Name of Jesus. Of these hymns Nos. 58-62 we have not been able to trace. --Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907 ================ Van Alstyne, Frances J., p. 1203, ii. From the American collections of recent date we find that Mrs. Van Alstyne is still actively engaged in hymn-writing. In the Funk and Wagnalls Company Gloria Deo, 1903, there are about 30 of her hymns, most of which are new. They are all signed, and some are dated, but we have not space to quote the first lines and subjects, as this hymnal is not an official collection of any denomination. Another name, "Mrs. S. K. Bourne" is credited in the same hymnal with about 40 new hymns. If this signature is not another pen-name of Mrs. Van Alstyne's (and these pen-names and initials of hers are very numerous), we can only say that she has a very successful understudy in "Mrs. S. K. Bourne." --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

Mary Ann Thomson

1834 - 1923 Person Name: M. A. Thomson Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "Saviour, for the little one" in The Church Hymnal Thomson, Mary Ann, wife of Mr. John Thomson, Librarian of the Free Library, Philadelphia, was born in London, England, December 5, 1834. She has written about forty hymns, which have appeared mostly in the Churchman, New York, and in the Living Church, Chicago. Four of her hymns are found in the Protestant Episcopal Hymnal, 1892. Of the origin of the missionary hymn by Mrs. Thomson which is found in our Hymnal she writes as follows: I wrote the greater part of the hymn, "O Zion, haste," in the year 1868. I had written many hymns before, and one night, while I was sitting up with one of my children who was ill of typhoid fever, I thought I should like to write a missionary hymn to the tune of the hymn beginning "Hark, hark, my soul, angelic songs are swelling," as I was fond of that tune; but as I could not then get a refrain I liked, I left the hymn unfinished, and about three years later I finished it by writing the refrain which now forms part of it. By some mistake 1891 is given instead of 1871 as the date of the hymn in the (Episcopal) Hymnal. I do not think it is ever sung to the tune for which I wrote it. Rev. John Anketell told me, and I am sure he is right, that it is better for a hymn to have a tune of its own, and I feel much indebted to the composer of the tune "Tidings" for writing so inspiring a tune to my words. Hymn Writers of the Church by Wilber F. Tillett and Charles S. Nutter, 1915 ================== Thomson, Mary Ann, wife of John Thomson, Librarian of the Free Library, Phila., was born in London, England, Dec. 5, 1834. She has written several hymns and poems. To 1895, eight of these appeared in The Churchman (New York); and thirty-four in The Living Church (Chicago). Of her hymns the following were included in The Hymnal, Revised and Enlarged .. . The P. E. Church, U.S.A., 1892 :— 1. Now the blessed Dayspring. [Annunciation B. V. M.] Begins with stanza ii. of "Through the sins and sorrows," which appeared in The Living Church, March 29, 1890. 2. O King of saints, we give Thee praise and glory. [All Saints.] First published in The Living Church, Nov. 8, 1890. In the first ed. of The Book of Praise, N.Y., 1894, it was attributed to Bp. W. W. How in error. 3. O Sion, haste, thy mission high fulfilling. [Missions.] No. 249 in The Hymnal, &c., 1892. 4. Saviour, for the little one. [Burial of a Child.] The Hymnal, &c., 1892, No. 247. Mrs. Thomson's Christmas Carol, "Lo! amid the shades of night," appeared, with music by B. Cecil Klein, in The Churchman, N.Y., Dec. 19, 1891, and separately at Phila. in 1892. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

Paul Gerhardt

1607 - 1676 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "Full Of Wonder, Full Of Art" in The Cyber Hymnal Paul Gerhardt (b. Gräfenheinichen, Saxony, Germany, 1607; d. Lubben, Germany, 1676), famous author of Lutheran evangelical hymns, studied theology and hymnody at the University of Wittenberg and then was a tutor in Berlin, where he became friends with Johann Crüger. He served the Lutheran parish of Mittenwalde near Berlin (1651-1657) and the great St. Nicholas' Church in Berlin (1657-1666). Friederich William, the Calvinist elector, had issued an edict that forbade the various Protestant groups to fight each other. Although Gerhardt did not want strife between the churches, he refused to comply with the edict because he thought it opposed the Lutheran "Formula of Concord," which con­demned some Calvinist doctrines. Consequently, he was released from his position in Berlin in 1666. With the support of friends he became archdeacon at Lubben in 1669 and remained there until his death. Gerhardt experienced much suffering in his life;­ he and his parishioners lived in the era of the Thirty Years' War, and his family experi­enced incredible tragedy: four of his five children died young, and his wife died after a prolonged illness. In the history of hymnody Gerhardt is considered a transitional figure-he wrote at a time when hymns were changing from a more objective, confes­sional, and corporate focus to a pietistic, devotional, and personal one. Like other German hymns, Gerhardt's were lengthy and intended for use throughout a service, a group of stanzas at a time. More than 130 of his hymns were published in various editions of Cruger's Praxis Pietatis Melica, the Crüger-Runge Gesangbuch (1653), and Ebeling's Das andere Dutzeud geistliche Andachtslieder Herrn Paul Gerhardts (1666-1667). John Wesley and Catherine Winkworth both made famous English translations of Gerhardt's texts. Bert Polman ====================== Gerhardt, Paulus, son of Christian Gerhardt, burgomaster of Gräfenhaynichen, near Wittenberg, was born at Grafenhaynichen, Mar. 12, 1607. On January 2, 1628, he matriculated at the University of Wittenberg. In the registers of St. Mary's church, Wittenberg, his name appears as a godfather, on July 13, 1641, described still as "studiosus," and he seems to have remained in Wittenberg till at least the end of April, 1642. He appears to have gone to Berlin in 1642 or 1643, and was there for some time (certainly after 1648) a tutor in the house of the advocate Andreas Barthold, whose daughter (Anna Maria, b. May 19, 1622, d. March 5, 1668) became his wife in 1655. During this period he seems to have frequently preached in Berlin. He was appointed in 1651, at the recommendation of the Berlin clergy, Lutheran Probst (chief pastor) at Mittenwalde, near Berlin, and ordained to this post Nov. 18, 1651. In July, 1657, he returned to Berlin as third diaconus of St. Nicholas's church; but becoming involved in the contest between the Elector Friedrich Wilhelm (who was of the Reformed Church) and the Lutheran clergy of Berlin, he was deposed from his office in February, 1666, though he still remained in Berlin. In Nov. 1668, he accepted the post of archidiaconus at Lübben, on the Spree, was installed in June, 1669, and remained there till his death on June 7, 1676 (Koch, iii. 297-326; Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, viii. 774-783, &c). The outward circumstances of Gerhardt's life were for the most part gloomy. His earlier years were spent amid the horrors of the Thirty Years' War. He did not obtain a settled position in life till he was 44 years of age. He was unable to marry till four years later; and his wife, after a long illness, died during the time that he was without office in Berlin; while of the five children of the marriage only one passed the period of childhood. The sunniest period of his life was during the early years of his Berlin ministry (i.e. 1657-1663), when he enjoyed universal love and esteem; while his latter years at Lübben as a widower with one surviving child were passed among a rough and unsympathising people. The motto on his portrait at Lübben not unjustly styles him "Theologus in cribro Satanae versatus." Gerhardt ranks, next to Luther, as the most gifted and popular hymnwriter of the Lutheran Church. Gervinus (ed. 1842, pt. iii. p. 366), the well-known historian of German literature, thus characterises him:— "He went back to Luther's most genuine type of hymn in such manner as no one else had done, only so far modified as the requirements of his time demanded. In Luther's time the belief in Free Grace and the work of the Atonement, in Redemption and the bursting of the gates of Hell was the inspiration of his joyful confidence; with Gerhardt it is the belief in the Love of God. With Luther the old wrathful God of the Romanists assumed the heavenly aspect of grace and mercy; with Gerhardt the merciful Righteous One is a gentle loving Man. Like the old poets of the people he is sincerely and unconstrainedly pious, naive, and hearty; the bliss fulness of his faith makes him benign and amiable; in his way of writing he is as attractive, simple, and pleasing as in his way of thinking." With a firm grasp of the objective realities of the Christian Faith, and a loyal adherence to the doctrinal standpoint of the Lutheran Church, Gerhardt is yet genuinely human; he takes a fresh, healthful view both of nature and of mankind. In his hymns we see the transition to the modern subjective tone of religious poetry. Sixteen of his hymns begin with, “I." Yet with Gerhardt it is not so much the individual soul that lays bare its sometimes morbid moods, as it is the representative member of the Church speaking out the thoughts and feelings he shares with his fellow members; while in style Gerhardt is simple and graceful, with a considerable variety of verse form at his command, and often of bell-like purity in tone. From the first publication of Gerhardt's hymns they at once came into favour among all ranks and creeds; and a large proportion are among the hymns most cherished and most widely used by German-speaking Christians at the present day. They appeared principally in the various editions of Crüger's Praxis, and the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch, 1653. The first collected edition was prepared by J. G. Ebeling, and published in separate "Dozens" 1-4 in 1666, 5-10 in 1667, i.e. 120 in all. In the edition of J. H. Feustking, Zerbst, 1707, a few stanzas were intercalated (from manuscripts in the possession of Gerhardt's surviving son), but no new hymns were added. Among modern editions of Gerhardt's hymns (mostly following the text of Ebeling) may be mentioned those by Langbecker, 1842; Schultz, 1842; Wackernagel, 1843; Becker, 1851; Goedeke, 1877, and Gerok, 1878. The Historico-Critical edition of Dr. J. F. Bachmann, 1866, is the most complete (with 11 additional pieces hardly Church hymns), and reverts to the pre-Ebeling text. The length of many of Gerhardt's hymns ("Ein Lämmlein" is 10 stanzas of 10 lines; "Fröhlich soil," 15 stanzas of 8 lines, &c), and the somewhat intricate metres of others, have caused his hymns to be less used in English than otherwise might have been the case; but a considerable proportion have come in some form or other into English hymnbooks. A large selection, translated with scrupulous faithfulness but not retaining much of the lyric grace of the originals, was published by the Rev. John Kelly, in 1867, as Paul Gerhardt’s Spiritual Songs; while many individual hymns have been translated by John Wesley, Miss Winkworth, Miss Cox, Miss Borthwick, and many others. His translations from St. Bernard are noted under "O Haupt voll Blut." There are separate notes on 19 of his greater hymns. Besides these the following have passed into English:— I. Hymns in English common use: i. Auf den Nebel folgt die Sonn. Thanksgiving after great sorrow and affliction. In Crüger's Praxis, 1656, No. 249, in 15 stanzas of 7 1.; thence in Wackernagel’s ed. of his Geistliche Lieder, No. 87, and Bachmann's ed., No. 64. In the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 402. Translated as:— Cometh sunshine after rain. A good translation, omitting stanzas iv.-vii., x., xi., by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 1st Ser., 1855, p. 100 (translations of x., xi. added to 2nd ed., 1856). Repeated, omitting the translations of stanzas ii., x.-xii., as No. 4 in her Chorale Book for England, 1863. In the Christian Hymn Book, Cincinnati, 1865, No. 799, begins with st. xiii., "Now as long as here I roam." Another translation is:—"After clouds we see the sun," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 261. ii. Die Zeit ist nunmehr nah. Day of Judgment—Second Advent. Founded on Acts iii. 20. In the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch 1653, No. 367, iii 18 stanzas of 6 lines, and thence in Wackernagel's edition of his Geistliche Lieder, 1843, No. 119 (1874, No. 124), and Bachmann's edition, No. 40. In the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S., ed. 1863, No. 1517. Translated as:— O Christ! how good and fair. Being a translation of stanzas iii., iv., vi., vii., x.-xiii., xvii., by Mrs. Charles, in her Voice of Christian Life in Song, 1858, p. 242. Her translations of stanzas iii., x., xii., are No. 150 in G. S. Jellicoe's Collection, 1867. Other trs. are:—(1) "May I when time is o'er," of stanzas vii., viii. as part of No. 831 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789; in the 1801 and later eds. (1886, No. 1229), beginning, "I shall, when time is o'er." (2) “The time is very near," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 341. iii. Gottlob, nun ist erschollen. Peace. Thanksgiving for the Proclamation of the Peace of Westphalia, in 1648, after the Thirty Years’ War. In Crüger's Praxis 1656, No. 409, in 6 stanzas of 12 lines, and thence in Wackernagel's edition of his Geistliche Lieder, No. 64, and Bachmann's ed., No. 84; and in the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 589. Translated as: — Thank God it hath resounded. A full and good tr. by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858, p. 156, repeated, omitting stanza ii., in her Chorale Book for England, 1863. St. i., v., vi., form No. 49 in M. W. Stryker's Christian Chorals, 1885. Another tr. is: ”Praise God! for forth hath sounded," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 251. iv. Ich, der ich oft in tiefes Leid. Ps. cxlv. First published in J. G. Ebeling's edition of his Geistliche Andachten Dritte Dutzet, 1666, No. 27, in 18 stanzas of 7 lines. Thence in Wackernagel's ed., No. 95, and Bachmann's ed., No. 103; also in the Berlin Geistliche LiederSchatz, ed. 1863, No. 1004. Translated as:— I who so oft in deep distress . A good translation, omitting stanzas ii.-iv., by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858, p. 149. Her translations of stanzas i., xiii.-xvi., xviii., were included as No. 224, and of stanzas vi., viii., ix., xi. altered, and beginning, "O God! how many thankful songs," as No. 168, in Holy Song, 1869. Another tr. is:—-"Who is so full of tenderness," of stanza viii. as stanza iv. of No. 1075 in the Supplement of 1808 to the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801 (1886, No. 537). v. Ich steh an deiner Krippen bier. Christmas. Included in Crüger's Praxis, 1656, No. 105, in 15 stanzas of 7 lines. Thence in Wackernagel's ed., No. 9, and Bachmann's ed., No. 45; and in the Berlin Geistliche LiederSchatz, ed. 1863, No. 167. A beautiful hymn, in which the poet puts himself in the place of the shepherds and the wise men visiting Bethlehem; and in praise and adoration tenders his devotion, his love and his all, to the Infant Saviour in the manger. Translated as:— My faith Thy lowly bed beholds. A translation of stanzas i., iv., vii., xv., by A. T. Russell, as No. 57 in his Psalms & Hymns, 1851. Other trs. are:— (1) "I stand beside Thy manger-bed," by Miss Manington, 1864, p. 38. (2) "Now at the manger here I stand," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 32. vi. Ich weiss dass mein Erlöser lebt. Easter. Founded on Job xix. 25-27. First published in J. G. Ebeling's ed. of his Geistliche Andachten Zehende Dutzet, 1667, No. 119, in 9 stanzas of 7 lines; repeated in Wackernagel's ed., 1843, No. 118 (1874, No. 123); in Bachmann's ed., No. 119; and in the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S. ed. 1863, No. 301. Translated as:— I know that my Redeemer lives, In this my faith is fast. A full and spirited translation by J. Oxenford, in Lays of the Sanctuary, 1859, p. 122. His translations of stanzas i., iii., vii.-ix., were included, altered, as No. 779 in Kennedy, 1863. Another tr. is:— "I know that my Redeemer lives, This hope," &c, by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 78. vii. Ich weiss, mein Gott, dass all mein Thun. Supplication. A prayer for success in all Christian works and purpose; founded on Jeremiah x. 23, and Acts v. 38, 39. Included in Crüger's Praxis, 1656, No. 332, in 18 stanzas of 5 lines. In Wackernagel's ed., No. 40; Bachmann's ed., No. 71, and the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S., ed. 1863. Translated as:— I know, my God, and I rejoice. A good translation of stanzas i.-iii., viii., xi., ix., by Miss Winkworth, as No. 121 in her Chorale Book for England, 1863. Another translation is:— "My God! my works and all I do” by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 102. viii. Kommt, und lasst uns Christum ehren. Christmas. Founded on St. Luke ii. 15. First published in J. G. Ebeling's ed. of his Geistliche Andachten Fünffte Dutzet, 1667, No. 56, in 8 stanzas of 4 lines. Thence in Wackemagel's ed., No. 6; Bachmann's ed., No. 110; and the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 43. Translated as:— 1. Come, unite in praise and singing. Omitting stanzas vi., vii., contributed by A. T. Russell to Maurice's Choral Hymnbook, 1861, No. 707. 2. Bring to Christ your best oblation. A full and good translation by P. Massie in his Lyra Domestica, 1864, p. 96; repeated in Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory and Reid's Praise Book, 1872. Other translations are:— (1) "Come, and let us Christ revere now," by Miss Manington, 1864, p. 25. (2) "Come, and Christ the Lord be praising," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 24. ix. Lobet den Herren, alle die ihn fürchten. Morning. Included in the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch 1653, No. 7, in 10 stanzas of 5 lines. In Wackernagel's ed., No. 100, and Bachmann's ed., No. 21, and in the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S. edition 1863, No. 1063. Translated as:— Praise God! revere Him! all ye men that fear Him! This is from the version in Bunsen's Allgemeine Gesangbücher, 1846, No. 167, stanza i. being from Gerhardt, and st. ii., iii., from "Lobet den Herren, denn er ist sehr freundlich" (q. v.); and appeared in the Dalston Hospital Hymnbook, 1848, No. 55, signed "A. G." Other translations are:— (1) "Our Lord be praising, All His glory raising," by H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 27. (2) "Praise ye Jehovah, all ye men who fear Him," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 279. x. Micht so traurig, nicht so sehr. Christian Contentment. In the 3rd edition, 1648, of Crüger's Praxis, No. 251, in 15 stanzas of 6 1., repeated in Wackernagel's ed., No. 53; Bachmann's ed., No. 16, and the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S., ed. 1863, No. 851. It is founded on Ps. cxvi. 7; Ps. xlii. 6-12; 1 Tim. vi. 6. Translated as:— Ah! grieve not so, nor so lament. A free translation by Mrs. Findlater, of stanzas i., ii., vii.-x., xiii., xv., in the 1st Ser., 1854, of the Hymns from the Land of Luther, p. 48 (1884, p. 50). Repeated, abridged, in Holy Song, 1869, and Dale's English Hymnbook, 1875. Other translations are:- (l) "Why this sad and mournful guise," by Miss Dunn, 1857, p. 85. (2) "Not so darkly, not so deep," by Miss Warner, 1858 (1861, p. 58). (3) “0 my soul, why dost thou grieve," by J. Kelly, 1867. xi. Nun lasst uns gehn und treten. New Year. Included in the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch, 1653, No. 106, in 15 st. of 4 1. Thence in Wackernagel's ed., No. 12; Bachmann's ed., No. 24, and the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S., ed. 1863, No. 200. Evidently written during the Thirty Years' War. Translated as:— In pray'r your voices raise ye. In full, by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 45. From this, 8 st. are included as No. 48 in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880. Other translations are:— (1) "Now let each humble Creature," in the Supplement to German Psalter, ed. 1765, p. 4, and Select Hymns from German Psalter, Tranquebar, 1754. p. 7. In the Moravian Hymnbook, 1789, No. 507 (1849, No. 1106), greatly altered, and beginning, “Year after year commenceth." (2) "0 come with prayer and singing," by R. Massie in the British Herald , Jan., 1865, p. 8. (3) “Christians all, with one accord," by E. Massie, 1867, p. 168. (4) "With notes of joy and songs of praise," by Dr. R. Maguire, 1883, p. 24. xii. Schaut! Schaut! was ist für Wunder dar? Christmas. First published in J. G. Ebeling's ed. of his Geistliche Andachten Fünffte Dutzet, 1667, No. 55, in 18 stanzas of 4 1. Thence in Wackernagel’s ed., No. 4; Bachmann's ed., No. 109. Translated as:— Behold! Behold! what wonders here. In full, by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 14. From this, 12 st. were included in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880, as Nos. 25, 26: No. 26 beginning with the translation of st. xiii., "It is a time of joy today." xiii. Warum willt du draussen stehen. Advent. Suggested by Gen. xxiv. 31. Appeared in the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch, 1653, No. 78, in 9 stanzas of 8 lines; viz., stanzas i.—vii., xi., xii., of the full form; st. viii.-x. being added in Ebeling's Geistliche Andachten Fünffte Dutzet, 1667, No. 50. The full text, in 12 stanzas, is also in Wackernagel's ed., No. 2; Bachmann's ed., No. 23, and Geistliche Lieder S., 1851, No. 20. Translated as:— Wherefore dost Thou longer tarry. A good translation, omitting st. viii.-x., by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyrica Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858, p. 6. In her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 153, the translations of st. iii., v., xi., are omitted. Other trs. are:- (l) “Wherefore dost Thou, blest of God," by R. Massie, in Lyra Domestica, 1864, p. 90. (2) “Why, without, then, art Thou staying," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 5. xiv. Was alle Weisheit in der Welt. Trinity Sunday. In Crüger's Praxis, 1656, No. 212, in 8 stanzas of 9 lines. Thence in Wackernagel's ed., No. 1, and Bachmann's ed., No, 59, and the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S., ed. 1863, No. 50. Translated as:— Scarce tongue can speak, ne'er human ken. In full, by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 1, repeated as No. 111 in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880. Another translation is:—"The mystery hidden from the eyes," by R. Massie, in Lyra Domestica, 1864, p. 87. xv. Was Gott gefällt, mein frommes Kind. Resignation. This beautiful hymn, on resignation to “what pleases God," first appeared in the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch, 1653, No. 290, in 20 stanzas of 5 lines. Thence in Wackernagel's ed., No. 60; Bachmann's ed., No. 37, and the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 723. Translated as:—- What God decrees, child of His love. A good translation of stanzas i., ii., v., vi., viii., xii., xv., xviii., xx., by Mrs. Findlater, in the 3rd Ser., 1858, of the Hymns from the Land of Luther, p. 49 (1884, p. 170). Included, in full, in Bishop Ryle's Collection, 1860, No. 171; and abridged in Christian Hymns, Adelaide, 1872, and beginning, "What God decrees, take patiently," in Kennedy, 1863, No. 1344. Other translations are:— (1) "What pleaseth God with joy receive," by Miss Dunn, 1857, p. 94. (2) “What pleases God, 0 pious soul," by Miss Winkworth, 1858, p. 193, (3) ”What pleaseth God, my faithful child," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 189. xvi. Wie schőn ists doch, Herr Jesu Christ. For Married Persons. Founded on Ps. cxxviii. First published in Ebeling's ed. of his Geistliche Andachten Vierte Dutzet, 1666, No. 38, in 8 st. of 12 1. Thence in Wackernagel's ed., 1843, No. 108 (1874, No. 109); Bachmann's ed., No. 105, and the Unverfälschter Liedersegen S., 1851, No. 680. Translated as:— Oh, Jesus Christ! how bright and fair. In full, by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 307, repeated, altered, and omitting st. iii.—v., in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880, No. 339. II. Hymns not in English common use: xvii. Also hat Gott die Welt geliebt. Good Friday. On St. John iii. 16. In Crüger's Praxis, 1661, No. 372, in 17 stanzas. Translated as, "Be of good cheer in all your wants,” by P. H. Molther, of stanza 16, as No. 181 in the Moravian Hymnbook, 1789 (1886, No. 217). xviii. Auf, auf, mein Herz mit Freuden. Easter. In Crüger's Praxis, 1648, No. 141, in 9 stanzas. The translations are:-- (1) "Up! Up! my heart with gladness, See," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 71. (2) "Up, up, my heart, with gladness; Receive," by N. L. Frothingham, 1870, p. 228. xix. Du bist zwar mein und bleibest mein. For the Bereaved. A beautiful hymn of consolation for parents on the loss of a son. Written on the death of Constantin Andreas, younger son of Johannes Berkov, pastor of St. Mary's Church, Berlin, and first printed as one of the "Dulcia amicorum solatia" at the end of the funeral sermon by Georg Lilius, Berlin, 1650. Included in Ebeline's ed. of Gerhardt's Geistliche Andachten Sechste Dutzet, Berlin, 1667, No. 72, in 12 stanzas. The translations are: (1) "Thou'rt mine, yes, still thou art mine own”, by Miss Winkworth, 1858, p. 123. (2) "Yes, thou art mine, still mine, my son," by J. D. Burns, in the Family Treasury, 1861, p. 8, and his Remains, 1869, p. 249. (3) "Mine art thou still, and mine shalt be," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 333. (4) "Thou art mine own, art still mine own," by Dr. J. Guthrie, 1869, p. 100. xx. Du, meine Seele, singe. Ps. cxlvi. In the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch, Berlin, 1653, No. 183, in 10 stanzas. Translated as, “O come, my soul, with singing," by Miss Burlingham, in the British Herald, Jannary, 1866, p. 207, and as No. 423 in Reid's Praise Book, 1872. xxi. Gieb dich zufrieden, und sei stille. Cross and Consolation—-Ps. xxxvii. 7. In Ebeling Erstes Dutzet, 1666, No. 11, in 15 stanzas. Translated as: (1) “Be thou content: be still before," by Miss Winkworth, 1855, p. 156, and in Bishop Ryle's Collection, 1860, No. 269. (2) “Be thou contented! aye relying," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 202. (3) “Tranquilly lead thee, peace possessing," by N. L. Frothingham, 1870, p. 246. xxii. Hőr an! mein Herz, die sieben Wort. Passiontide. On the Seven Words from the Cross. Founded on the hymn noted under Bőschenstein, J. (q.v.). In Crüger's Praxis, 1656, No. 137, in 15 stanzas. Translated as: (1) “Come now, my soul, thy thoughts engage," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 309). (2) "Seven times the Saviour spake my heart," by R. Massie, in the British Herald, Sept., 1865, p. 133. (3) "My heart! the seven words hear now," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 63. xxiii. Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn. Resignation. In Crüger's Praxis, 1648, No. 249, in 12 st. Translated as: (1) "I into God's own heart and mind," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 219. (2) "To God's all-gracious heart and mind”, by Miss Winkworth, 1869, p. 213, repeated in Statham's Collection, Edinburgh, 1869 and 1870. xxiv. 0 Jesu Christ! dein Kripplein ist. Christmas. At the Manger of Bethlehem. In Crüger's Praxis, 1656, No. 101, in 15 stanzas. Translated as: (1) Be not dismay'd—-in time of need" (st. xi.) in the Moravian Hymnbook, 1789, No. 236. (2) "O blessed Jesus! This," by Miss Winkworth, 1858, p, 18. (3) "O Jesus Christ! Thy cradle is," by Miss Manington, 1864, p. 41. (4) "Thy manger is my paradise," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 26. xxv. Voller Wunder, voller Kunst. Holy Matrimony. In Ebeling Vierte Dutzet, 1666, No. 40, in 17 st. Often used in Germany at marriages on the way to church. Translated as: (1) "Full of wonder, full of skill," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 215). (2) "Full of wonder, full of skill," in Mrs. Stanley Carr's translation of Wildenhahn's Paul Gerhardt, ed. 1856, p. 52. (3) "Full of wonder, full of art," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 302. (4) "Full of wonder, full of art," by Miss Winkworth, 1869, p. 215. xxvi. Warum machet solche Schmerzen. New Year. On St. Luke ii. 21. In Crüger's Praxis, 1648, No. 97, in 4 stanzas. Bunsen, in his Versuch, 1833, No. 120, gives st. iii., iv. altered to "Freut euch, Sünder, allerwegen." Tr. as: (1) "Mortals, who have God offended," by Miss Cox, 1841, p. 21, from Bunsen. (2) "Why should they such pain e'er give Thee," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 43. xxvii. Weg, mein Herz, mit den Gedanken. Lent. On St. Luke xv. In Crüger's Praxis, 1648, No. 36, in 12 stanzas. Translated as: (1) "Let not such a thought e'er pain thee," by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 83. (2) "Hence, my heart, with such a thought," by Miss Winkworth, 1869, p. 210. Besides the above, a considerable number of other hymns by Gerhardt have been translated by Mr. Kelly, and a few by Dr. Mills, Miss Manington, and others. The limits of our space forbid detailed notes on these versions. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ============================= Gerhardt, Paulus, pp. 409, ii., 1565, i. The most recent edition of Gerhardt's hymns is in vol. iii. of the Fischer-Tümpel Deutsche evangelische Kirchenlied des Siebzehnten Jahr-hunderts, 1906, Nos. 389-495. In fixing the text the compilers have been enabled to use the recently discovered 1647, 1653 and 1657 Berlin editions of Cruger's Praxis Pietatis Melica. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

Johann Anastasius Freylinghausen

1670 - 1739 Person Name: Rev. Johann A. Freylinghausen, 1670-1739 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Composer of "DAYSPRING" in Hymnal and Liturgies of the Moravian Church Freylinghausen, Johann Anastasius, son of Dietrich Freylinghausen, merchant and burgomaster at Gandersheim, Brunswick, was born at Gandersheim, Dec. 2, 1670. He entered the University of Jena at Easter, 1689. Attracted by the preaching of A. H. Francke and J. J. Breithaupt, he removed to Erfurt in 1691, and at Easter, 1692, followed them to Halle. About the end of 1693 he returned to Gandersheim, and employed himself as a private tutor. In 1695 he went to Glaucha as assistant to Francke; and when Francke became pastor of St. Ulrich's, in Halle,1715, Freylinghausen became his colleague, and in the same year married his only daughter. In 1723 he became also sub-director of the Paedagogium and the Orphanage; and after Francke's death in 1727, succeeded him as pastor of St. Ulrich's and director of the Francke Institutions. Under his fostering care these Institutions attained their highest development. From a stroke of paralysis in 1728, and a second in 1730, he recovered in great measure, but a third in 1737 crippled his right side, while the last, in Nov., 1738, left him almost helpless. He died on Feb. 12, 1739, and was buried beside Francke (Koch, vi. 322-334; Allgemine Deutsche Biographie, vii. 370-71; Bode, pp. 69-70; Grote's Introduction, &c.) Almost all Freylinghausen's hymns appeared in his own hymnbook, which was the standard collection of the Halle school, uniting the best productions of Pietism with a good representation of the older "classical" hymns. This work, which greatly influenced later collections, and was the source from which many editors drew not only the hymns of Pietism, but also the current forms of the earlier hymns (as well as the new "Halle" melodies, a number of which are ascribed to Freylinghausen himself) appeared in two parts, viz.:— i. Geistreiches Gesang-Buch, den Kern alter und neuer Lieder...in sich haltend &c, Halle. Gedrucktund verlegt im Waysen-Hause, 1704 [Hamburg], with 683 hymns and 173 melodies. To the second edition, 1705 [Rostock University], an Appendix was added with Hymns 684-758, and 21 melodies. Editions 3-18 are practically the same so far as the hymns are concerned, save that in ed. 11, 1719 [Berlin], and later issues, four hymns, written by J. J. Rambach at Freylinghausen's request, replaced four of those in eds. 1-10. ii. Neues Geistreiches Gesangbuch,&c, Halle . . . 1714 [Berlin], with 815 hymns and 154 melodies. In the 2nd edition, 1719 [Rostock University], Hymns 816-818, with one melody, were added. In 1741 these two parts were combined by G. A. Francke, seven hymns being added, all but one taken from the first edition, 1718, of the so-called Auszug, which was compiled for congregational use mainly from the original two parts: and this reached a second, and last, edition in 1771. So far as the melodies are concerned, the edition of 1771 is the most complete, containing some 600 to 1582 hymns. (Further details of these editions in the Blätter für Hymnologie, 1883, pp. 44-46, 106-109; 1885, pp. 13-14.) A little volume of notes on the hymns and hymnwriters of the 1771 edition, compiled by J. H. Grischow and completed by J. G. Kirchner, and occasionally referred to in these pages, appeared as Kurzgefasste Nachricht von ältern und ncuern Liederverfassern at Halle, 1771. As a hymnwriter Freylinghausen ranks not only as the best of the Pietistic school, but as the first among his contemporaries. His finest productions are distinguished by a sound and robust piety, warmth of feeling depth of Christian experience, scripturalness, clearness and variety of style, which gained for them wide acceptance, and have kept them still in popular use. A complete edition of his 44 hymns, with a biographical introduction by Ludwig Grote, appeared as his Geistliche Lieder, at Halle, 1855. A number of them, including No. v., are said to have been written during severe attacks of toothache. Two (“Auf, auf, weil der Tag erschienen"; "Der Tag ist hin") are noted under their own first lines. i. Hymns in English common use: -- i. Monarche aller Ding. God's Majesty. 1714, as above, No. 139, in 11 stanzas of 6 lines, repeated in Grote, 1855, p. 88, and as No. 38 in the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863. A fine hymn of Praise, on the majesty and love of God. Translated as:— Monarch of all, with lowly fear, by J. Wesley, in Hymns & Sacred Poems, 1739 (P. Works, 1868-1872, vol. i. p. 104), in 8 stanzas of 4 lines, from st. i., ii., v.-vii., ix.-xi. Repeated in full in the Moravian Hymnbook, 1754, pt. i., No. 456 (1886, No. 176); and in J. A. Latrobe's Collection, 1841. The following forms of this translation are also in common use:-- (1) To Thee, 0 Lord, with humble fear, being Wesley's st. i., iii.-v., vii., viii. altered as No. 156 in Dr. Martineau's Hymns for Christian Church & Home, 1840, and repeated in Miss Courtauld's Psalms, Hymns & Anthems, 1860, and in America in the Cheshire Association Unitarian Collection, 1844. (2) Thou, Lord, of all the parent art, Wesley's, st. iii.-v., vii. altered in the College Hymnal, N. Y., 1876. (3) Thou, Lord, art Light; Thy native ray, Wesley's st. iv., v., vii., in Hymns of the Spirit, 1864. ii. 0 reines Wesen, lautre Quelle. Penitence. Founded on Psalm li. 12, 1714, as above, No. 321, in 7 stanzas of 8 lines, repeated in Grote, 1855, p. 41, and in Bunsen's Versuch, 1833, No. 777 (ed. 1881, No. 435). The only translation in common use is:— Pure Essence: Spotless Fount of Light. A good and full translation by Miss Winkworth in the first series of her Lyra Germanica, 1855, p. 43, and in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 113. iii. Wer ist wohl wie du. Names and offices of Christ. One of his noblest and most beautiful hymns, a mirror of his inner life, and one of the finest of the German "Jesus Hymns." 1704, as above, No. 66, in 14 st. of 6 l., repeated in Grote, 1855, p. 33, and is No. 96 in the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863. The translations in common use are: 1. 0 Jesu, source of calm repose, by J. Wesley, being a free translation of st. i., iii., v., viii., xiii. First published in his Psalms & Hymns, Charlestown, 1737 (Poetical Works, 1868-1872, vol. i. p. 161). Repeated in full as No. 462 in pt. i. of the Moravian Hymnbook, 1754. In the 1826 and later editions (1886, No. 233) it begins, "Jesus, Thou source." The original form was included as No. 49 in the Wesley Hymns & Spiritual Songs , 1753, and, as No. 343, in the Wesley Hymnbook, 1780 (1875, No. 353). Varying centos under the original first line are found in Mercer's Church Psalter & Hymn Book, 1855-1864; Kennedy , 1863; Irish Church Hymnal, 1869-1873; J. L. Porter's Collection, 1876, &c. It has also furnished the following centos:— (1) Messiah! Lord! rejoicing still, being Wesley's st. iv.-vi. altered in Dr. Martineau's Collection of Hymns for Christian Worship, 1840. (2) Lord over all, sent to fulfil, Wesley's st. iv., iii., v., vi. in the American Methodist Episcopal Hymnbook, 1849. 2. Who is like Thee, Who? a translation of st. i., ii., v., vii., x., xiii., as No. 687, in pt. i. of the Moravian Hymnbook, 1754. Translations of st. xi., xiv. were added in 1789, and the first line altered in 1801(1886, No. 234), to "Jesus, who with Thee." The translations of st. i., ii., x., xiv., from the 1801, altered and beginning, "Jesus, who can be," are included in America in the Dutch Reformed Hymns of the Church, 1869; Hymns & Songs of Praise, N. Y., 1874; and Richards's Collection, N.Y., 1881. 3. Who is there like Thee, a good translation of st. i., ii., viii., xiv., by J. S. Stallybrass, as No. 234 in Curwen's Sabbath Hymnbook, 1859, repeated in the Irish Church Hymnal, 1873, and in W. F. Stevenson's Hymns for Church & Home, 1873. 4. Who is, Jesus blest, a translation of stanzas i., ii., v., vi., xii., xiv., by M. Loy, in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880. 5. Who, as Thou, makes blest, a good translation, omitting st. vii., ix., x., contributed by Dr. F. W Gotch to the Baptist Magazine, 1857. Repeated in the 1880 Supplement to the Baptist Psalms & Hymns, 1858. The translations not in common use are: — (1) "Whither shall we flee," by Miss Dunn, 1857, p. 55. (2) "Who has worth like Thine," in the U. P. Juvenile Miss. Magazine, 1857, p. 217. (3) "Thou art First and Best," by Miss Winkworth, 1869, p. 267. ii. Hymns translated into English but not in common use:— iv. Herr und Gott der Tag und Nächte. Evening. 1705, as above, No. 755, in 6 stanzas, Grote, p. 105. Translated by H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 106, beginning with stanza. ii. v. Mein Herz, gieb dioh rufrieden. Cross and Consolation. First in the Halle Stadt Gesangbuch, 1711, No. 503, in 11 stanzas; repeated 1714, No. 450, and in Grote, p. 71. Translated by Dr. G. Walker, 1860, p. 86. vi. 0 Lamm, das keine Sünde je beflecket. Passiontide. 1714, No. 85, in 19 stanzas, Grote, p. 14. Translated as, (1) "Lamb, for Thy boundless love I praises offer," of st. xii. as stanza i. of No. 1023 in the Supplement of 1808 to the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801 (1849, No. 121). (2) "O Lamb, whom never spot of sin defiled," in the British Magazine, June, 1838, p. 625. vii. 0 Lamm, das meine Sündenlast getragen. Easter Eve. 1714, No. 95, in 8 stanzas; Grote, p. 23. Translated as "Christ Jesus is that precious grain," a translation of st. v. by F. W. Foster, as No. 71 in the Moravian Hymnbook, 1789 (1886, No. 921). viii. Zu dir, Herr Jesu, komme ich. Penitence. Founded on St. Matthew xi. 28-30. 1714, as above, No. 306, in 4 stanzas; Grote, p. 39. Translated by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 80). [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Pedro Castro

1840 - 1887 Person Name: Pedro Castro Iriarte Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Translator of "Santa Biblia" in Celebremos Su Gloria Pedro Castro Iriarte was converted to Christianity while he was a young man working for a printing company in Madrid. He then served as a pastor, organizing churches in Valladolid and Madrid. He was also a prolific writer of prose, poetry, and children's stories. He also translated many hymns. Dianne Shapiro from Celebremos su Gloria (Colombia/Illinois: Libros Alianza/Celebration), 1992

Joseph Barnby

1838 - 1896 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Composer of "DIDSBURY" Joseph Barnby (b. York, England, 1838; d. London, England, 1896) An accomplished and popular choral director in England, Barby showed his musical genius early: he was an organist and choirmaster at the age of twelve. He became organist at St. Andrews, Wells Street, London, where he developed an outstanding choral program (at times nicknamed "the Sunday Opera"). Barnby introduced annual performances of J. S. Bach's St. John Passion in St. Anne's, Soho, and directed the first performance in an English church of the St. Matthew Passion. He was also active in regional music festivals, conducted the Royal Choral Society, and composed and edited music (mainly for Novello and Company). In 1892 he was knighted by Queen Victoria. His compositions include many anthems and service music for the Anglican liturgy, as well as 246 hymn tunes (published posthumously in 1897). He edited four hymnals, including The Hymnary (1872) and The Congregational Sunday School Hymnal (1891), and coedited The Cathedral Psalter (1873). Bert Polman

Delores Dufner

b. 1939 Meter: 7.7.7.7.7.7 Author of "Jesus Christ, by Faith Revealed" in One in Faith Delores Dufner is a member of St. Benedict’s Monastery in St. Joseph, Minnesota, with Master's Degrees in Liturgical Music and Liturgical Studies. She is currently a member and a Fellow of The Hymn Society in the United States and Canada, the National Pastoral Musicians (NPM), the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP), and the Monastic Worship Forum. Delores is a writer of liturgical, scripturally based hymn and song texts which have a broad ecumenical appeal and are contracted or licensed by 34 publishers in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, Australia, and China. She has received more than 50 commissions to write texts for special occasions or needs and has published over 200 hymns, many of which have several different musical settings and appear in several publications. She is the author of three hymn collections: Sing a New Church (1994, Oregon Catholic Press), The Glimmer of Glory in Song (2004, GIA Publications), and And Every Breath, a Song (2011, GIA Publications). Delores, the middle child of five, was born and raised on a farm in the Red River Valley of North Dakota. She attended a one-room country school in which she learned to read music and play the tonette, later studying piano and organ. Delores was a school music teacher, private piano and organ instructor, and parish organist/choir director for twelve years. She served as liturgy coordinator for her religious community of 775 members for six years and as Director of the Office of Worship for the Diocese of St. Cloud, Minnesota for fifteen years. She subsequently worked as a liturgical music consultant for the Diocese of Ballarat, Victoria in southeast Australia for fifteen months. At present, she is preparing a fourth hymn collection and assisting with liturgy planning and music leadership at the monastery. Delores Dufner

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