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Person Results

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Person Name: Unknown Author of "Holy God, We Praise Thy Name" in The Lutheran Hymnal In some hymnals, the editors noted that a hymn's author is unknown to them, and so this artificial "person" entry is used to reflect that fact. Obviously, the hymns attributed to "Author Unknown" "Unknown" or "Anonymous" could have been written by many people over a span of many centuries.

Augustus Toplady

1740 - 1778 Person Name: Augustus M. Toplady Author of "Rock of Ages, Cleft for Me" in The Baptist Standard Hymnal Toplady, Augustus Montague, the author of "Rock of Ages," was born at Farnham, Surrey, November 4, 1740. His father was an officer in the British army. His mother was a woman of remarkable piety. He prepared for the university at Westminster School, and subsequently was graduated at Trinity College, Dublin. While on a visit in Ireland in his sixteenth year he was awakened and converted at a service held in a barn in Codymain. The text was Ephesians ii. 13: "But now, in Christ Jesus, ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ." The preacher was an illiterate but warm-hearted layman named Morris. Concerning this experience Toplady wrote: "Strange that I, who had so long sat under the means of grace in England, should be brought nigh unto God in an obscure part of Ireland, amidst a handful of God's people met together in a barn, and under the ministry of one who could hardly spell his name. Surely this is the Lord's doing, and it is marvelous." In 1758, through the influence of sermons preached by Dr. Manton on the seventeenth chapter of John, he became an extreme Calvinist in his theology, which brought him later into conflict with Mr. Wesley and the Methodists. He was ordained to the ministry in the Church of England in 1762, and in 1768 he became vicar of Broadhembury, a small living in Devonshire, which he held until his death. The last two or three years of his life he passed in London, where he preached in a chapel on Orange Street. His last sickness was of such a character that he was able to make a repeated and emphatic dying testimony. A short time before his death he asked his physician what he thought. The reply was that his pulse showed that his heart was beating weaker every day. Toplady replied with a smile: "Why, that is a good sign that my death is fast approaching; and, blessed be God, I can add that my heart beats stronger and stronger every day for glory." To another friend he said: "O, my dear sir, I cannot tell you the comforts I feel in my soul; they are past expression. . . . My prayers are all converted into praise." He died of consumption August 11, 1778. His volume of Psalms and Hymns for Public and Private Worship was published in 1776. Of the four hundred and nineteen hymns which it contained, several were his own productions. If on a quiet sea 446 Rock of ages, cleft for me 279 Hymn Writers of the Church, 1915 by Charles S. Nutter =============================================== Toplady, Augustus Montague, M.A. The life of Toplady has been repeatedly and fully written, the last, a somewhat discursive and slackly put together book, yet matterful, by W. Winters (1872). Summarily, these data may be here given: he was born at Farnham, in Surrey, on November 4, 1740. His father, Richard Toplady, was a Major in the British array, and was killed at the siege of Carthagena (1741) soon after the birth of his son. His widowed mother placed him at the renowned Westminster school, London. By-and-by circumstances led her to Ireland, and young Augustus was entered at Trinity College, Dublin, where he completed his academical training, ultimately graduating M.A. He also received his "new birth" in Ireland under remarkable conditions, as he himself tells us with oddly mixed humility and lofty self-estimate, as "a favourite of heaven," common to his school:— "Strange that I who had so long sat under the means of grace in England should be brought right unto God in an obscure part of Ireland, midst a handful of people met together in a barn, and by the ministry of one who could hardly spell his own name. Surely it was the Lord's doing and is marvellous. The excellency of such power must be of God and cannot be of man. The regenerating spirit breathes not only on whom but likewise, when and where and as He listeth." Toplady received orders in the Church of England on June 6, 1762, and after some time was appointed to Broadhembury. His Psalms and Hymns of 1776 bears that he was then “B.A." and Vicar of Broadhembury. Shortly thereafter be is found in London as minister of the Chapel of the French Calvinists in Leicester Fields. He was a strong and partizan Calvinist, and not well-informed theologically outside of Calvinism. We willingly and with sense of relief leave unstirred the small thick dust of oblivion that has gathered on his controversial writings, especially his scurrilous language to John Wesley because of his Arminianism, as we do John Wesley's deplorable misunderstanding and misrepresentation of Calvinism. Throughout Toplady lacked the breadth of the divine Master's watchword "Forbid him not, for he that is not against us is for us" (St. Luke ix. 50). He was impulsive, rash-spoken, reckless in misjudgment; but a flame of genuine devoutness burned in the fragile lamp of his overtasked and wasted body. He died on August 11, 1778. The last edition of his works is in 6 vols., 8 vo., 1825. An accurate reproduction of most of his genuine hymns was one of the reprints of Daniel Sedgwick, 1860. His name occurs and recurs in contemporary memoirs and ecclesiastical histories, e.g., in Tyerman's Life of John Wesley. The reader will find in their places annotations on the several hymns of Toplady, and specially on his "Rock of Ages,” a song of grace that has given him a deeper and more inward place in millions of human hearts from generation to generation than almost any other hymnologist of our country, not excepting Charles Wesley. Besides the "Rock of Ages" must be named, for power, intensity, and higher afflatus and nicer workmanship, "Object of my first desire,” and "Deathless principle arise." It is to be regretted that the latter has not been more widely accepted. It is strong, firm, stirring, and masterful. Regarded critically, it must be stated that the affectionateness with which Toplady is named, and the glow and passion of his faith and life, and yearning after holiness, have led to an over-exaltation of him as a hymnwriter. Many of his hymns have been widely used, and especially in America, and in the Evangelical hymnbooks of the Church of England. Year by year, however, the number in use is becoming less. The reason is soon found. He is no poet or inspired singer. He climbs no heights. He sounds no depths. He has mere vanishing gleams of imaginative light. His greatness is the greatness of goodness. He is a fervent preacher, not a bard. [Rev. A. B. Grosart, D.D., LL.D.] Toplady's hymns and poetical pieces were published in his:— (1) Poems on Sacred Subjects wherein The Fundamental Doctrines of Christianity, with many other interesting Points, are occasionally introduced. . . Dublin: Printed by S. Powell, in Crane-lane, MDCCLIX.; (2) his Psalms & Hymns for Public and Private Worship, 1776; (3) in The Gospel Magazine, 1771-1776; and (4) in Hymns and Sacred Poems on a variety of Divine Subjects, &c. D. Sedgwick's reprint, 1860. His Works, with a Memoir by W. Row, were published in 6 volumes, in 1794. Walter How was also the editor of the 2nd and some later editions of the Psalms & Hymns. He was a most careless editor, and attributed several hymns by C. Wesley and others to Toplady. The following additional hymns in common use together with centos indicated in the sub-lines, are from:— i. His Poems on Sacred Subjects, 1759. 1. Can my heaven-born soul submit? All for Christ. 2. Come from on high, my King and God. Holiness desired. (1.) 0 might this worthless heart of mine. 3. Earnest of future bliss. The Witness of the Spirit. 4. From Thy supreme tribunal, Lord. Christ's Righteousness a Refuge. (1.) The spotless Saviour lived for me. 5. Great God, Whom heaven, and earth, and sea. For Peace. 6. I saw, and lo! a countless throng. Saints' Days. Revised form in the Gospel Magazine, 1774, p. 449. 7. Immovable our hope remains. Divine Faithfulness. 8. Jesus, God of love, attend. Divine Worship. Pt. ii. is "Prayer can mercy's door unlock." 9. Jesus, Thy power I fain would feel. Lent. 10. Lord, I feel a carnal mind. Mind of Christ desired. 11. My yielding heart dissolves as wax. On behalf of Arians, &c. (1.) 0 Jesus, manifest Thy grace. 12. Not to myself I owe. Praise for Conversion, (1.) Not to ourselves we owe. (2.) The Father's grace and love. 13. 0 that my heart was right with Thee. Dedication to God desired. 14. 0 Thou that hearest the prayer of faith. Christ the Propitiation. 15. 0 Thou Who didst Thy glory leave. Thanksgiving for Redemption. 16. 0 when wilt Thou my Saviour be. Trust in Jesus. (1.) Jesus, the sinner's Rest Thou art. 17. Redeemer, whither should I flee? Safety in the Cross. 18. Remember, Lord, that Jesus bled. Pardon. 19. Surely Christ thy griefs hath borne. Redemption. Revised text in Gospel Magazine, 1774, p. 548. (1.) Weary sinner, keep thine eyes. (2.) Weeping soul, no longer mourn. ii. From the Gospel Magazine. 20. Compared with Christ, in all besides. Christ All in All. Feb. 1772. 21. Eternal Hallelujahs Be to the Father given. Holy Trinity, Dec. 1774. 22. From whence this fear and unbelief. Reviving Faith, Feb. 1772. 23. How vast the benefits divine. Redemption. Dec. 1774. From this "Not for the works which we have done" is taken. 24. Whom have I in heaven but Thee? Christ All and in All, Feb. 1772. From this "If my Lord Himself reveal" is taken. 25. Jesus, immutably the same. Jesus, the True Vine. June, 1771. All these hymns, together with "O precious blood, 0 glorious death" (Death of Christ), are in D. Sedgwick's reprint of Toplady's Hymns, &c, 1860. We have met with several other hymns to which Toplady's name is appended, but for this we can find no authority whatever. -- Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Catherine Winkworth

1827 - 1878 Translator of "[Holy God, we praise thy name]" in The United Methodist Hymnal Music Supplement Catherine Winkworth is "the most gifted translator of any foreign sacred lyrics into our tongue, after Dr. Neale and John Wesley; and in practical services rendered, taking quality with quantity, the first of those who have laboured upon German hymns. Our knowledge of them is due to her more largely than to any or all other translators; and by her two series of Lyra Germanica, her Chorale Book, and her Christian Singers of Germany, she has laid all English-speaking Christians under lasting obligation." --Annotations of the Hymnal, Charles Hutchins, M.A., 1872 ======================== Winkworth, Catherine, daughter of Henry Winkworth, of Alderley Edge, Cheshire, was born in London, Sep. 13, 1829. Most of her early life was spent in the neighbourhood of Manchester. Subsequently she removed with the family to Clifton, near Bristol. She died suddenly of heart disease, at Monnetier, in Savoy, in July, 1878. Miss Winkworth published:— Translations from the German of the Life of Pastor Fliedner, the Founder of the Sisterhood of Protestant Deaconesses at Kaiserworth, 1861; and of the Life of Amelia Sieveking, 1863. Her sympathy with practical efforts for the benefit of women, and with a pure devotional life, as seen in these translations, received from her the most practical illustration possible in the deep and active interest which she took in educational work in connection with the Clifton Association for the Higher Education of Women, and kindred societies there and elsewhere. Our interest, however, is mainly centred in her hymnological work as embodied in her:— (1) Lyra Germanica, 1st Ser., 1855. (2) Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858. (3) The Chorale Book for England (containing translations from the German, together with music), 1863; and (4) her charming biographical work, the Christian Singers of Germany, 1869. In a sympathetic article on Miss Winkworth in the Inquirer of July 20, 1878, Dr. Martineau says:— "The translations contained in these volumes are invariably faithful, and for the most part both terse and delicate; and an admirable art is applied to the management of complex and difficult versification. They have not quite the fire of John Wesley's versions of Moravian hymns, or the wonderful fusion and reproduction of thought which may be found in Coleridge. But if less flowing they are more conscientious than either, and attain a result as poetical as severe exactitude admits, being only a little short of ‘native music'" Dr. Percival, then Principal of Clifton College, also wrote concerning her (in the Bristol Times and Mirror), in July, 1878:— "She was a person of remarkable intellectual and social gifts, and very unusual attainments; but what specially distinguished her was her combination of rare ability and great knowledge with a certain tender and sympathetic refinement which constitutes the special charm of the true womanly character." Dr. Martineau (as above) says her religious life afforded "a happy example of the piety which the Church of England discipline may implant.....The fast hold she retained of her discipleship of Christ was no example of ‘feminine simplicity,' carrying on the childish mind into maturer years, but the clear allegiance of a firm mind, familiar with the pretensions of non-Christian schools, well able to test them, and undiverted by them from her first love." Miss Winkworth, although not the earliest of modern translators from the German into English, is certainly the foremost in rank and popularity. Her translations are the most widely used of any from that language, and have had more to do with the modern revival of the English use of German hymns than the versions of any other writer. -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ============================ See also in: Hymn Writers of the Church

J. Hart

1712 - 1768 Person Name: Hart Author of "O for a glance of heavenly day" in African Methodist Episcopal hymn and tune book Hart, Joseph, was born in London in 1712. His early life is involved in obscurity. His education was fairly good; and from the testimony of his brother-in-law, and successor in the ministry in Jewin Street, the Rev. John Hughes, "his civil calling was" for some time "that of a teacher of the learned languages." His early life, according to his own Experience which he prefaced to his Hymns, was a curious mixture of loose conduct, serious conviction of sin, and endeavours after amendment of life, and not until Whitsuntide, 1757, did he realize a permanent change, which was brought about mainly through his attending divine service at the Moravian Chapel, in Fetter Lane, London, and hearing a sermon on Rev. iii. 10. During the next two years many of his most earnest and impassioned hymns were written. These appeared as:— Hymns composed on Various Subjects, with the Author's Experience, London, 1759. During this year he became the Minister of the Independent Chapel, Jewin Street, London. In 1762 he added a Supplement to his Hymns; and in 1765 an Appendix. In modern editions of his Hymns these three are embodied in one volume as:— Hymns composed on Various Subjects: With the Author's Experience, The Supplement and Appendix. By the Rev. Joseph Hart, late Minister of the Gospel in Jewin Street, London. Allott & Co. [no date]. Hart died on May 24, 1768. At one time his hymns were widely used, especially by Calvinistic Nonconformists. Many of them are of merit, and are marked by great earnestness, and passionate love of the Redeemer. The best known are: “Come, Holy Spirit, come"; “Come, ye sinners, poor and wretched"; "This God is the God we adore"; and "Lord, look on all assembled here." Those which are more limited in their use include:— i. From his Hymns, &c, 1759. 1. Descend from heaven, celestial Dove. Whitsuntide. No. 6, in 6 stanzas of 6 lines. In Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory., 1872, No. 374, st. iv., v. are omitted. It is in extensive use in America. 2. Great High Priest, we view Thee stooping. High Priesthood of Christ. No. 56, pt. ii., in 3 stanzas of 8 lines. In Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1872, No. 236; Hatfield's Church Hymn Book, N. Y., 1872, No. 435, &c. 8. How wondrous are the works of God. Redeeming Love. No. 21, in 9 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Scottish Evangelical Union Hymnal, 1878, st. i.-iv. are given as No. 11. 4. If ever it could come to pass. Final Perseverance. No. 58, in 3 stanzas of 6 lines. Repeated in Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1872, No. 729. 6. Jesus is our God and Saviour . Faith and Repentance. No. 54, in 7 stanzas of 8 lines. In Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1872, No. 146, st. iv. is omitted. In the London Hymn Book (enlarged), 1879, st. iii. and v. are given as "Nothing but Thy blood, 0 Jesus." 6. Jesus, while He dwelt below. Gethsemane. No. 75, in 23 stanzas of 6 lines. In Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1872, No. 230, sixteen stanzas are broken up into three parts: (i.) "Jesus, while He dwelt below"; (ii.) "Full of love to man's lost race"; (iii.) "There my God bore all my guilt." A cento is also given in Hatfield's Church Hymn Book, N. Y., 1872, No. 441, as "Many woes had Christ [He] endured." It is composed of st. viii., ix., xiii., xx., xxiii., slightly altered. In the Scottish Evangelical Union Hymnal, 1878, No. 34, 8 stanzas are given in two parts: pt. i. as, "Jesus, while He dwelt below"; pt. ii. "Eden from each flowery bed." 7. Lamb of God, we fall before Thee. Christ All in All. No. 17 in 4 stanzas of 8 lines. It is in various collections, and as altered in Kennedy , 1863, No. 1171, is much improved. 8. Let us all with grateful praises. Christmas. No. 14 in 7 stanzas of 8 lines. In Spurgeon's 0ur Own Hymn Book, 1866, it is reduced to 4 stanzas of 4 lines. 9. Lord, look on all assembled here. For a Public Fast. No. 96, in 8 stanzas of 4 lines. It is in several of the older hymnbooks. 10. Lord, we lie before Thy feet. Lent. No. 74, in 6 stanzas of 6 lines, and based on 2 Chron. xx. 20. In Spurgeon's 0ur Own Hymn Book, 1866, stanza i., iii., vi. are given as No. 585. 11. Mercy is welcome news indeed. God's Mercy in pardoning Sin. No. 51, in 6 stanzas of 4 lines, on St. Luke vii. 42. In Spurgeon, 1866, No. 544. 12. Much we talk of Jesu's blood. Passiontide. No. 41, in 4 st. of 8 lines, on Lam. i. 12. In Spurgeon, 1866, it is abridged to 4 stanzas of 4 lines. 13. Bow from the garden to the cross. Good Friday. No. 63, in 9 stanzas of 4 lines, and entitled, "The Crucifixion." In Spurgeon, 1866, No. 274, st. ii.-v., vi.-ix. are given as "See how the patient Jesus stands." 14. The Fountain of Christ Assist me to sing. The Fountain. No. 86, in 8 stanzas of 8 lines on Zech. xiii. 1. In Spurgeon, 1866, st. i., v., vii., viii., are given as No. 375. 15. The moon and stars shall lose their light. Advent. No. 48, in 4 stanzas of 4 lines, on St. Matt. xxiv. 35. In Spurgeon, 1866. 16. The sinner that truly believes. Saving Faith. No. 88, in 5 stanzas of 4 lines, and entitled, "Saving Faith" In Spurgeon, 1866, No. 533, st. ii. is omitted, and the opening line is altered to "The moment a sinner believes." ii. From his Supplement, 1762. 17. Behold what awful pomp. Advent. No. 52, in 8 stanzas of 4 lines. It is usually abridged as in the American Methodist Episcopal Hymns, 1849, No. 1107. 18. Christ is the Eternal Rock. The Offices of Christ. No. 27, in 6 stanzas of 8 lines. In Windle's Metrical Psalter & Hymnal, 1862, stanzas i., ii., v. are given as No. 53. 19. Christians, dismiss your fear. Easter. No. 33, in 4 stanzas of 8 lines into Dr. Alexander's Augustine Hymn Book, 1849, No. 79, in 7 stanzas of 4 lines. 20. Dismiss us with Thy blessing, Lord. Close of Service. No. 78, in 2 stanzas of 4 lines. In a few collections. 21. Gird thy loins up, Christian soldier. The Christian Armour . No. 29, in 5 stanzas of 8 lines, on Eph. vi. 11. Found in several of the older, and a few of the modern collections. 22. Glory to God on high, Our peace, &c. Holy Communion. No. 3, in 6 stanzas of 4 lines. In Hatfield's Church Hymn Book, 1872, No. 704, st. v., vi. are omitted. 23. Holy Ghost, inspire our praises. On behalf of Ministers. No. 77, in 5 stanzas of 8 lines. In the Scottish Evangelical Union Hymnal, 1878, No. 412, st. iii.-v. are given as, "Happy soul that hears and follows." 24. Jesus once for sinners slain. Holy Communion. No. 18, in 6 stanzas of 4 lines. In American use. 25. Lord, help us on Thy word to feed. Close of Service. No. 80, in 2 stanzas of 4 lines. In several modern hymnbooks. 26. O for a glance of heavenly day. Lent. No. 64, in 5 stanzas of 4 lines. In Hatfield's Church Hymn Book, 1872, and other American collections it is usually repeated in full. In Bickersteth's Christian Psalmody, 1833, it was given as, "Lord, shed a beam of heavenly day," and this is repeated in modern hymnbooks. 27. Once more before we part. Close of Service. No. 79, in 2 stanzas of 4 lines. Popular in Great Britain and America. 28. Once more we come before our God. Before a Sermon. No. 21, in 6 stanzas of 4 lines, into Hatfield, 1872, No. 111, and others. 29. Sons of God by bless'd adoption. Burial. No. 45, in 3 stanzas of 8 lines, into Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1872, No. 981, as "Sons of God by blest adoption." 30. Suffering Saviour, Lamb of God . Holy Communion. No. 14, in 8 stanzas of 4 lines. In W. F. Stevenson's Hymns for Church & Home, 1873, st. iii., vii. are omitted. 31. That doleful night before His death. Holy Communion. No. 17, in 2 stanzas of 8 lines. In the Scottish Evangelical Union Hymnal, 1878, st. i. 11. 4-8, and st. ii., are given as, "To keep Thy Feast, Lord, we are met." iii. From his Appendix, 1765. 32. Christians, in your several stations. Christian Duty. No. 7, in 5 stanzas of 6 lines. It is slightly altered in Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1872, No. 742, and dated 1759 in error. 33. Prayer was [is] appointed to convey. Prayer. No. 12 in 6 stanzas of 4 lines into Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1872, No. 542, with alterations and the omission of st. ii., v. In some American collections it begins, "Prayer is to God, the soul's sure way." --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ======================= Hart, Joseph, p. 492, ii. Other hymns in common use are— 1. The blest memorials of Thy grief (1762). Holy Communion. 2. To comprehend the great Three-One (1759). Holy Trinity. 3. Vain man, thy fond pursuits forbear (1759). Death. 4. When the blest day of Pentecost (1759). Whitsuntide. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

Isaac Watts

1674 - 1748 Person Name: Watts Author of "A broken heart, my God, my King" in African Methodist Episcopal hymn and tune book Isaac Watts was the son of a schoolmaster, and was born in Southampton, July 17, 1674. He is said to have shown remarkable precocity in childhood, beginning the study of Latin, in his fourth year, and writing respectable verses at the age of seven. At the age of sixteen, he went to London to study in the Academy of the Rev. Thomas Rowe, an Independent minister. In 1698, he became assistant minister of the Independent Church, Berry St., London. In 1702, he became pastor. In 1712, he accepted an invitation to visit Sir Thomas Abney, at his residence of Abney Park, and at Sir Thomas' pressing request, made it his home for the remainder of his life. It was a residence most favourable for his health, and for the prosecution of his literary labours. He did not retire from ministerial duties, but preached as often as his delicate health would permit. The number of Watts' publications is very large. His collected works, first published in 1720, embrace sermons, treatises, poems and hymns. His "Horae Lyricae" was published in December, 1705. His "Hymns" appeared in July, 1707. The first hymn he is said to have composed for religious worship, is "Behold the glories of the Lamb," written at the age of twenty. It is as a writer of psalms and hymns that he is everywhere known. Some of his hymns were written to be sung after his sermons, giving expression to the meaning of the text upon which he had preached. Montgomery calls Watts "the greatest name among hymn-writers," and the honour can hardly be disputed. His published hymns number more than eight hundred. Watts died November 25, 1748, and was buried at Bunhill Fields. A monumental statue was erected in Southampton, his native place, and there is also a monument to his memory in the South Choir of Westminster Abbey. "Happy," says the great contemporary champion of Anglican orthodoxy, "will be that reader whose mind is disposed, by his verses or his prose, to imitate him in all but his non-conformity, to copy his benevolence to men, and his reverence to God." ("Memorials of Westminster Abbey," p. 325.) --Annotations of the Hymnal, Charles Hutchins, M.A., 1872. ================================= Watts, Isaac, D.D. The father of Dr. Watts was a respected Nonconformist, and at the birth of the child, and during its infancy, twice suffered imprisonment for his religious convictions. In his later years he kept a flourishing boarding school at Southampton. Isaac, the eldest of his nine children, was born in that town July 17, 1674. His taste for verse showed itself in early childhood. He was taught Greek, Latin, and Hebrew by Mr. Pinhorn, rector of All Saints, and headmaster of the Grammar School, in Southampton. The splendid promise of the boy induced a physician of the town and other friends to offer him an education at one of the Universities for eventual ordination in the Church of England: but this he refused; and entered a Nonconformist Academy at Stoke Newington in 1690, under the care of Mr. Thomas Rowe, the pastor of the Independent congregation at Girdlers' Hall. Of this congregation he became a member in 1693. Leaving the Academy at the age of twenty, he spent two years at home; and it was then that the bulk of the Hymns and Spiritual Songs (published 1707-9) were written, and sung from manuscripts in the Southampton Chapel. The hymn "Behold the glories of the Lamb" is said to have been the first he composed, and written as an attempt to raise the standard of praise. In answer to requests, others succeeded. The hymn "There is a land of pure delight" is said to have been suggested by the view across Southampton Water. The next six years of Watts's life were again spent at Stoke Newington, in the post of tutor to the son of an eminent Puritan, Sir John Hartopp; and to the intense study of these years must be traced the accumulation of the theological and philosophical materials which he published subsequently, and also the life-long enfeeblement of his constitution. Watts preached his first sermon when he was twenty-four years old. In the next three years he preached frequently; and in 1702 was ordained pastor of the eminent Independent congregation in Mark Lane, over which Caryl and Dr. John Owen had presided, and which numbered Mrs. Bendish, Cromwell's granddaughter, Charles Fleetwood, Charles Desborough, Sir John Hartopp, Lady Haversham, and other distinguished Independents among its members. In this year he removed to the house of Mr. Hollis in the Minories. His health began to fail in the following year, and Mr. Samuel Price was appointed as his assistant in the ministry. In 1712 a fever shattered his constitution, and Mr. Price was then appointed co-pastor of the congregation which had in the meantime removed to a new chapel in Bury Street. It was at this period that he became the guest of Sir Thomas Abney, under whose roof, and after his death (1722) that of his widow, he remained for the rest of his suffering life; residing for the longer portion of these thirty-six years principally at the beautiful country seat of Theobalds in Herts, and for the last thirteen years at Stoke Newington. His degree of D.D. was bestowed on him in 1728, unsolicited, by the University of Edinburgh. His infirmities increased on him up to the peaceful close of his sufferings, Nov. 25, 1748. He was buried in the Puritan restingplace at Bunhill Fields, but a monument was erected to him in Westminster Abbey. His learning and piety, gentleness and largeness of heart have earned him the title of the Melanchthon of his day. Among his friends, churchmen like Bishop Gibson are ranked with Nonconformists such as Doddridge. His theological as well as philosophical fame was considerable. His Speculations on the Human Nature of the Logos, as a contribution to the great controversy on the Holy Trinity, brought on him a charge of Arian opinions. His work on The Improvement of the Mind, published in 1741, is eulogised by Johnson. His Logic was still a valued textbook at Oxford within living memory. The World to Come, published in 1745, was once a favourite devotional work, parts of it being translated into several languages. His Catechisms, Scripture History (1732), as well as The Divine and Moral Songs (1715), were the most popular text-books for religious education fifty years ago. The Hymns and Spiritual Songs were published in 1707-9, though written earlier. The Horae Lyricae, which contains hymns interspersed among the poems, appeared in 1706-9. Some hymns were also appended at the close of the several Sermons preached in London, published in 1721-24. The Psalms were published in 1719. The earliest life of Watts is that by his friend Dr. Gibbons. Johnson has included him in his Lives of the Poets; and Southey has echoed Johnson's warm eulogy. The most interesting modern life is Isaac Watts: his Life and Writings, by E. Paxton Hood. [Rev. H. Leigh Bennett, M.A.] A large mass of Dr. Watts's hymns and paraphrases of the Psalms have no personal history beyond the date of their publication. These we have grouped together here and shall preface the list with the books from which they are taken. (l) Horae Lyricae. Poems chiefly of the Lyric kind. In Three Books Sacred: i.To Devotion and Piety; ii. To Virtue, Honour, and Friendship; iii. To the Memory of the Dead. By I. Watts, 1706. Second edition, 1709. (2) Hymns and Spiritual Songs. In Three Books: i. Collected from the Scriptures; ii. Composed on Divine Subjects; iii. Prepared for the Lord's Supper. By I. Watts, 1707. This contained in Bk i. 78 hymns; Bk. ii. 110; Bk. iii. 22, and 12 doxologies. In the 2nd edition published in 1709, Bk. i. was increased to 150; Bk. ii. to 170; Bk. iii. to 25 and 15 doxologies. (3) Divine and Moral Songs for the Use of Children. By I. Watts, London, 1715. (4) The Psalms of David Imitated in the Language of the New Testament, And apply'd to the Christian State and Worship. By I. Watts. London: Printed by J. Clark, at the Bible and Crown in the Poultry, &c, 1719. (5) Sermons with hymns appended thereto, vol. i., 1721; ii., 1723; iii. 1727. In the 5th ed. of the Sermons the three volumes, in duodecimo, were reduced to two, in octavo. (6) Reliquiae Juveniles: Miscellaneous Thoughts in Prose and Verse, on Natural, Moral, and Divine Subjects; Written chiefly in Younger Years. By I. Watts, D.D., London, 1734. (7) Remnants of Time. London, 1736. 454 Hymns and Versions of the Psalms, in addition to the centos are all in common use at the present time. --Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================================== Watts, I. , p. 1241, ii. Nearly 100 hymns, additional to those already annotated, are given in some minor hymn-books. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907) ================= Watts, I. , p. 1236, i. At the time of the publication of this Dictionary in 1892, every copy of the 1707 edition of Watts's Hymns and Spiritual Songs was supposed to have perished, and all notes thereon were based upon references which were found in magazines and old collections of hymns and versions of the Psalms. Recently three copies have been recovered, and by a careful examination of one of these we have been able to give some of the results in the revision of pp. 1-1597, and the rest we now subjoin. i. Hymns in the 1709 ed. of Hymns and Spiritual Songs which previously appeared in the 1707 edition of the same book, but are not so noted in the 1st ed. of this Dictionary:— On pp. 1237, L-1239, ii., Nos. 18, 33, 42, 43, 47, 48, 60, 56, 58, 59, 63, 75, 82, 83, 84, 85, 93, 96, 99, 102, 104, 105, 113, 115, 116, 123, 124, 134, 137, 139, 146, 147, 148, 149, 162, 166, 174, 180, 181, 182, 188, 190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 197, 200, 202. ii. Versions of the Psalms in his Psalms of David, 1719, which previously appeared in his Hymns and Spiritual Songs, 1707:— On pp. 1239, U.-1241, i., Nos. 241, 288, 304, 313, 314, 317, 410, 441. iii. Additional not noted in the revision:— 1. My soul, how lovely is the place; p. 1240, ii. 332. This version of Ps. lxiv. first appeared in the 1707 edition of Hymns & Spiritual Songs, as "Ye saints, how lovely is the place." 2. Shine, mighty God, on Britain shine; p. 1055, ii. In the 1707 edition of Hymns & Spiritual Songs, Bk. i., No. 35, and again in his Psalms of David, 1719. 3. Sing to the Lord with [cheerful] joyful voice, p. 1059, ii. This version of Ps. c. is No. 43 in the Hymns & Spiritual Songs, 1707, Bk. i., from which it passed into the Ps. of David, 1719. A careful collation of the earliest editions of Watts's Horae Lyricae shows that Nos. 1, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, p. 1237, i., are in the 1706 ed., and that the rest were added in 1709. Of the remaining hymns, Nos. 91 appeared in his Sermons, vol. ii., 1723, and No. 196 in Sermons, vol. i., 1721. No. 199 was added after Watts's death. It must be noted also that the original title of what is usually known as Divine and Moral Songs was Divine Songs only. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907) =========== See also in: Hymn Writers of the Church

Thomas Ken

1637 - 1711 Person Name: T. Ken Author of "Awake, my soul, and with the sun" in African Methodist Episcopal hymn and tune book Ken, Thomas, D.D. The bare details of Bishop Ken's life, when summarised, produce these results:—-Born at Berkhampstead, July, 1637; Scholar of Winchester, 1651; Fellow of New College, Oxford, 1657; B.A., 1661; Rector of Little Easton, 1663; Fellow of Winchester, 1666; Rector of Brighstone, 1667; Rector of Woodhay and Prebendary of Winchester, 1669; Chaplain to the Princess Mary at the Hague, 1679; returns to Winchester, 1680; Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1685; imprisoned in the Tower, 1688; deprived, 1691; died at Longleat, March 19, 1711. The parents of Ken both died during his childhood, and he grew up under the guardianship of Izaak Walton, who had married Ken's elder sister, Ann. The dominant Presbyterianism of Winchester and Oxford did not shake the firm attachment to the English Church, which such a home had instilled. His life until the renewal of his connection with Winchester, through his fellowship, his chaplaincy to Morley (Walton's staunch friend, then bishop of Winchester), and his prebend in the Cathedral, calls for no special remark here. But this second association with Winchester, there seems little doubt, originated his three well-known hymns. In 1674 he published A Manual of Prayers for the Use of the Scholars of Winchester College, and reference is made in this book to three hymns, for "Morning," "Midnight," and "Evening," the scholars being recommended to use them. It can scarcely be questioned that the Morning, Evening, and Midnight hymns, published in the 1695 edition of The Manual, are the ones referred to. He used to sing these hymns to the viol or spinet, but the tunes he used are unknown. He left Winchester for a short time to be chaplain to the Princess Mary at the Hague, but was dismissed for his faithful remonstrance against a case of immorality at the Court, and returned to Winchester. A similar act of faithfulness at Winchester singularly enough won him his bishopric. He stoutly refused Nell Gwynne the use of his house, when Charles II. came to Winchester, and the easy king, either from humour or respect for his honesty, gave him not long afterwards the bishopric of Bath and Wells. Among the many acts of piety and munificence that characterised his tenure of the see, his ministration to the prisoners and sufferers after the battle of Sedgmoor and the Bloody Assize are conspicuous. He interceded for them with the king, and retrenched his own state to assist them. He attended Monmouth on the scaffold. James II. pronounced him the most eloquent preacher among the Protestants of his time; the judgment of Charles II. appears from his pithy saying that he would go and hear Ken "tell him of his faults." Among the faithful words of the bishops at Charles's death-bed, none were so noble in their faithfulness as his. He was one of the Seven Bishops who refused to read the Declaration of Indulgence, and were imprisoned in the Tower by James for their refusal, but triumphantly acquitted on their trial. At the accession of William III, he refused, after some doubt on the subject, to take the oaths, and was at length (1691) deprived of his see. His charities had left him at this time only seven hundred pounds, and his library, as a means of subsistence; but he received hospitality for his remaining years with his friend Lord Weymouth, at Longleat. The see of Bath and Wells was again offered him, but in vain, at the death of his successor, Bishop Kidder. He survived all the deprived prelates. His attitude as a nonjuror was remarkable for its conciliatory spirit. The saintliness of Ken's character, its combination of boldness, gentleness, modesty and love, has been universally recognised. The verdict of Macaulay is that it approached "as near as human infirmity permits to the ideal perfection of Christian virtue." The principal work of Ken's that remains is that on the Catechism, entitled The Practice of Divine Love. His poetical works were published after his death, in four volumes. Among the contents are, the Hymns for the Festivals, which are said to have suggested to Keble the idea of The Christian Year; the Anodynes against the acute physical sufferings of his closing years; and the Preparatives for Death. Although many passages in them are full of tender devotion, they cannot rank either in style or strength with the three great hymns written at Winchester. The best biographies of Ken are he Life of Ken by a Layman, and, specially, his Life, by the Very Rev. E. H. Plumptre, Dean of Wells, 1888. [Rev. H. Leigh Bennett, M.A.] Bishop Ken is known to hymnody as the author of the Morning, Evening, and Midnight Hymns, the first and second of which at least have found a place in almost every English collection for the last 150 years. The general history of these hymns, as we now know it, is as follows:— 1. In 1674 Ken published his Manual of Prayers for Winchester Scholars as A Manual of Prayers For the Use of the Scholars of Winchester College [here arms of William of Wykeham within a border]. London, Printed for John Martyn, 1674, 12 mo, pp. 69. From a passage in this work it may fairly be inferred that the author had already composed hymns for the use of the scholars. He says:— “Be sure to sing the Morning and Evening Hymn in your chamber devoutly, remembering that the Psalmist, upon happy experience, assures you that it is a good thing to tell of the loving kindness of the Lord early in the morning and of his truth in the night season." Two hymns only seem to be here referred to, but the expression "night season" may include both the Evening and Midnight hymns, and the latter would be only used occasionally. The hymns are not given in the Manual of 1674, or succeeding editions, until that of 1695, when the three hymns are added as an Appendix. The title of this edition is:— A Manual of Prayers For the Use of the Scholars of Winchester College. And all other Devout Christians. To which is added three Hymns for Morning, Evening, and Midnight; not in former Editions: By the Same Author. Newly Revised. London, Printed for Ctarles Brome at the Ovn, at the West end of St. Paul's Church, 1695. 2. In 1704 Richard Smith, a London publisher, issued a book similar in appearance to the Manual, and entitled Conference between the Soul and Body concerning the Present and Future State. This edition contained a strong recommendation by Dodwell, an intimate friend of Ken, but no hymns. To the 2nd edition, however (1705), were added two (Morning and Evening) hymns, with Ken's name appended, but containing two additional verses to the Evening hymn, and differing in several other respects from the text of the Manual. Thereupon Charles Brome, to whom the copyright of the latter belonged, issued a new edition with an Advertisement stating that Ken "absolutely disowned" the hymns appended to the Conference, "as being very false and uncorrect," and that the genuine text was that given in the Manual only. Brome's Advertisementreads:— "Advertisement—-Whereas at the end of a Book lately Publish'd call'd, 'A Conference between the Soul and Body,' there are some Hymns said to be writ by Bishop Ken, who absolutely disowns them, as being very false and uncorrect; but the Genuine ones are to be had only of Charles Brome, Bookseller, whose just Propriety the Original copy is." 3. In 1709, however, the spurious hymns were again published as Ken's in a book entitled A New Year's Gift: in Two Parts: to which is added A Morning and Evening Hymn. By Thomas, late L. B. of Bath and Wells. The Third Edition with additions. London Printed by W. Olney. 1709. Brome met this, as before, with a new edition of the Manual, in which the Advertisement of 1705 as above was repeated, but the text of the hymns considerably revised. This revised text was followed in all subsequent editions of the Manual, but as, until lately, it was thought to have appeared first in the edition of 1712, published soon after Ken's death, its genuineness was suspected by many. The question as it then stood was fully discussed in an able letter by Sir Roundell Palmer (Lord Selborne), prefixed to the reprint of Ken's Hymns, published by D. Sedgwick in 1864. Since that time the discovery in the Bodleian Library of a copy of the Manual of 1709 shows that the revision was made in that year, and confirms the conclusion at which Lord Selborne had previously arrived, that it was Ken's genuine revised text. The title of this edition is:— A Manual of Prayers For the Use of the Scholars of Winchester College, And all other Devout Christians, To which is added three Hymns for Morning, Evening, and Midnight; By the same Author. Newly Revised. London: Printed for Charles Brome at the Gun, the West end of St. Paul's Church, 1709. The Advertisement before referred to is at p. 130. The alterations of 1709 may therefore be accepted as being made by Ken himself, and it seems not improbable that the revision was suggested by the recent republication of the spurious text in spite of Brome's disclaimer in 1705, and possibly by adverse criticism of the original text. Lord Selborne pointed out in his Letter that Ken altered a passage in his Practice of Divine Love (1st ed., 1685) because "some Roman Catholic writer professed to discover the doctrine of Transubstantiation" therein. This alteration was made in the 2nd ed., 1686, and explained in the Preface to have been made "to prevent all misunderstanding for the future." A passage also in the Manual—-"Help me, then, ye blessed Hosts of Heaven, to celebrate that unknown sorrow, &c." — was claimed in a Roman Catholic pamphlet as a passage which taught the scholars of Winchester to invocate the whole Court of Heaven." This passage Ken altered "to prevent all future misinterpretations," and prefixed an Advertisement to the 1687 edition of the Manual explaining why he had done so. In looking through the texts of the three hymns for 1695, and 1709, and especially at the doxologies, and at st. x. and xi. in the Evening Hymn, "You my Blest Guardian, whilst I sleep," &c. (1695); and "O may my Guardian while I sleep," &c. (1709), do we not see a good and sufficient reason to account for the revision of the hymns? 4. With regard to the text given in the Conference, Lord Selborne observes that it is not improbable that alterations and various readings, originating with Ken himself, might have obtained private circulation among his friends, long before he had made up his own mind to give them to the public; a suggestion which may possibly help to explain the fact, that a writer, patronised by Dodwell, was misled into believing (for such a writer ought not lightly to be accused of a wilful fraud) that the text, published in the Conference in Ken's name was really from his hand. That Ken occasionally altered passages in his writings when for any reason he considered it necessary, is certain ; and there can be little doubt that the text of the three Winchester hymns was more or less unsettled before 1695. At any rate, before their first appearance in that year in the Manual the Evening hymn had found its way into print. It was published in ”Harmonia Sacra; or Divine Hymns and Dialogues .. . Composed by the Best Masters . . . The Words by several Learned and Pious Persons. The Second Book," London, Henry Playford, 1693. The first volume, of this work appeared in 1688, and was dedicated to Ken. It is not improbable therefore that Playford, when collecting materials for his second volume, obtained the words of the Evening Hymn directly from the author. The hymn was set by Clarke as a Cantata for a solo voice, with the Doxology as a chorus in four parts. 5. The various Morning Hymns by Ken which have appeared in the Appendix to Tate and Brady's Version of the Psalms, and in most hymnals published during the past 150 years are compilations from this hymn, with, in many instances, slight alterations of the text either of 1695 or of that of 1709. In some modern hymnals the difficulty of the length of the hymn is overcome by dividing it into two or more parts. A reference to the text given in Harmonia Sacra shows that the change from "Glory" to "All praise" in line 1. is only a restoration of the original reading; and without being aware of this fact, Lord Selborne points out that the expression "All praise" is remarkably consistent with Ken's frequent use of it in other writings. The same alteration was made in 1709 in the Morning Hymn, stanza 9, and in the Midnight Hymn, st. 7; while at the same time "Glory" in the Morning Hymn, st. v. 1. 4, is changed to "High Praise." As in the case of "Awake my soul," this hymn has been divided, subdivided, and rearranged in a great many ways during the last 150 years. In one form or another it will be found in most hymnals published during that period. Like the Morning and Evening Hymns, this hymn has been divided and rearranged in various ways, and is found in one form or another in most hymnals published during the last 150 years. 6. The various centos from these hymns which are in common use in English-speaking countries are:— i. From the Morning Hymn. 1. All praise to Thee Who safe hast kept. 2. Awake, my soul, and with the sun. 3. Glory to Thee Who safe hast kept. 4. I wake, I wake, ye heavenly choirs. 5. I would not wake nor rise again. 6. Wake, and lift up thyself, my heart. ii. From the Evening Hymn. 1. All praise to Thee, my God, this night. 2. Glory to Thee, my God, this night. iii. From the Midnight Hymn. 1. All praise to Thee in light array'd. 2. Glory to Thee in light array'd. 3. Lord, now my sleep doth me forsake. 4. My God, now [when] I from sleep awake. 7. Bishop Ken has not escaped the not unusual charge of plagiarism, in connection with his celebrated hymns. Charges of this kind have been made from time to time, the nature and value of which we will endeavour to summarize. These are: (1) he borrowed from Sir Thomas Browne; (2) he did the same from Thomas Flatman; (3) he did neither, but Paraphrased from the Latin. 8. The title of Bishop Ken's hymns on the Festivals of the Church, published posthumously in 1721, is: Hymns for all the Festivals of the Year. They were republished by Pickering as: Bishop Ken's Christian Year or Hymns and Poems for the Holy Days and Festivals of the Church, Lond., 1868. From this work the following centos have come into common use:— 1. All human succours now are flown. Visitation of the Sick. 2. I had one only thing to do. A New Creature. 3. O purify my soul from stain. 10th Sunday after Trinity, or A Prayer for Purity. 4. 0 Lord, when near the appointed hour. Holy Communion. 5. Unction the Christian name implies. Confirmation. [George Arthur Crawford, M.A.] -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ======================== Ken, T. , p. 422, i. Since this article was electrotyped the following details concerning Bishop Ken's three hymns have come to light:—In a Catalogue of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, published in 1707, there appears an entry of a tract entitled, Three Hymns for Morning, Evening; and Midnight, by the Author of the Manual of Prayers for Winchester Scholars. A copy of this hitherto unknown tract has lately come into the hands of Mr. W. T. Brooke, and by him has been passed on to the British Museum Library. It is bound up in a volume with two other pamphlets, of which the respective titles are: (1) An Exposition on the Church Catechism, or the Practice of Divine Love. Revised. Composed for the Diocese of Bath and Wells. Printed for Charles Brome, at the Gun of the West end of St. Paul's Churchyard, 1703; (2) Directions for Prayer for the Dioceses of Bath and Wells. Price 2d. pp. 16; (3) A Morning, Evening, and Midnight Hymn by the Author of the Manual of Prayers for Winchester Scholars. Nos. 2 and 3 have no title, but on the last page of No. 3 is "London, Printed at the Gun, at the West End of St. Paul's Church." The text of this tract of the "Three Hymns" agrees absolutely with that of 1709, except that in the 10th stanza of the Morning Hymns it reads "not rise again," as in 1705. We may therefore conclude that Ken's revisions, with this exception, were made between 1705 and 1707, the date of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge Catalogue. We may add that another cento from Ken's Midnight Hymn is "Blest Jesu! Thou, on heaven intent." in Rice's Hymns, 1870. The Life of Bishop Ken by the late Dean Plumptre was published in 1888, in 2 volumes. It is by far the best and most exhaustive life of the Bishop, and is worthy of the author's great reputation. [George Arthur Crawford, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix I (1907)

Samuel Longfellow

1819 - 1892 Person Name: Samuel W. Longfellow Author of "O Life That Maketh All Things New" in E. A. C. C. Hymnal Longfellow, Samuel, B. A., brother of the Poet, was born at Portland, Maine, June 18, 1819, and educated at Harvard, where he graduated in Arts in 1839, and in Theology in 1846. On receiving ordination as an Unitarian Minister, he became Pastor at Fall River, Massachusetts, 1848; at Brooklyn, 1853; and at Germantown, Pennsylvania, 1860. In 1846 he edited, with the Rev. S. Johnson (q. v.), A Book of Hymns for Public and Private Devotion. This collection was enlarged and revised in 1848. In 1859 his Vespers was published, and in 1864 the Unitarian Hymns of the Spirit , under the joint editorship of the Rev. S. Johnson and himself. His Life of his brother, the Poet Longfellow, was published in 1886. To the works named he contributed the following hymns:— i. To A Book of Hymns , revised ed., 1848. 1. Beneath the shadow of the Cross. Love. 2. 0 God, thy children gathered here. Ordination. ii. To the Vespers 1859. 3. Again as evening's shadow falls. Evening. 4. Now on land and sea descending. Evening. iii. To the Hymns of the Spirit, 1864. 5. A voice by Jordan's shore. Advent. 6. Father, give Thy benediction. Ordination. 7. Go forth to life, 0 child of earth. Life's Mission. 8. God of ages and of nations. Holy Scriptures. 9. Holy Spirit, Truth divine. The Holy Spirit desired. 10. I look to Thee in every need. Trust in God. 11. In the beginning was the Word. The Word. 12. Love for all, and can it be? Lent. The Prodigal Son. 13. 0 God, in Whom we live and move. God's Law and Love. 14. 0 God, Thou Giver of all good. Prayer for Food. 15. O still in accents sweet and strong. Missions. 16. 0 Thou, Whose liberal sun and rain. Anniversary of Church dedication. 17. One holy Church of God appears. The Church Universal. 18. Out of the dark, the circling sphere. The Outlook. 19. Peace, peace on earth! the heart of man for ever. Peace on Earth. 20. The loving Friend to all who bowed. Jesus of Nazareth. 21. ’Tis winter now, the fallen snow. Winter. Of these, hymn No. 2 was written for the Ordination of E. E. Hale (q. v.), at Worcester, 1846. Several are included in Martineau's Hymns, 1873. Died Oct. 3, 1892. [Rev. F. M. Bird, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907), p. 685 =============== Longfellow, S., p. 685, i. Since Mr. Longfellow's death on Oct. 3, 1892, his hymns have been collected by his niece, Miss Alice Longfellow, as Hymns and Verses(Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1904.) From this work we find many of the hymns signed Anon, in the Index to Longfellow and Johnson's Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, were his; several of these, including E. Osier's "O God unseen, yet ever near," were popular English hymns which he rewrote from his own theological standpoint. These re¬written hymns are very widely used by Unitarians and others. During the last ten years the following additional hymns by S. Long¬fellow have come into common use:— 1. Eternal One, Thou living God. Faith in God. 2. God of the earth, the sky, the sea. God in Nature. 3. God's trumpet wakes the slumbering world. Call to duty. 4. Light of ages and of nations. God in and through all time. 5. Lo, the earth is risen again. Spring. (1876.) 6. Now while we sing our closing psalm. Close of Worship. 7. O Life that maketh all things new. Unity. (1874.) 8. O Thou in Whom we live and move. The Divine Law. 9. The summer days are come again. Summer. From his hymn,"The sweet[bright] June days are come again." 10. Thou Lord of lite, our saving health. In Sickness. (1886.) Of these hymns Nos. 2, 3 appeared in the Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, and all with the dates appended in Hymns and Verses, 1904. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907) ================== http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Longfellow

Benjamin Schmolck

1672 - 1737 Person Name: Benjamin Schmolk Author of "Light Of Light" in Hymnal for Church and Home Schmolck, Benjamin, son of Martin Schmolck, or Schmolcke, Lutheran pastor at Brauchitschdorf (now Chrόstnik) near Liegnitz in Silesia (now Poland) was born at Brauchitschdorf, Dec. 21, 1672. He entered the Gymnasium at Lauban in 1688, and spent five years there. After his return home he preached for his father a sermon which so struck the patron of the living that he made Benjamin an allowance for three years to enable him to study theology. He matriculated, at Michaelmas, 1693, at the University of Leipzig, where he came under the influence of J. Olearius, J. B. Carpzov, and others, and throughout his life retained the character of their teaching, viz. a warm and living practical Christianity, but Churchly in tone and not Pietistic. In the autumn of 1697, after completing his studies at Leipzig (during his last year there he supported himself mainly by the proceeds of occasional poems written for wealthy citizens, for which he was also, crowned as a poet), he returned to Brauchitzchdorf to help his father, and, in 1701, was ordained as his assistant. On Feb. 12, 1702, he married Anna Rosina, daughter of Christoph Rehwald, merchant in Lauban and in the end of the same year was appointed diaconus of the Friedenskirche at Schweidnitz in Silesia. As the result of the Counter-Reformation in Silesia, the churches in the principality of Schweidnitz had been taken from the Lutherans, and for the whole district the Peace of Westphalia (1648) allowed only one church (and that only of timber and clay, without tower or bells), which the Lutherans had to build at Schweidnitz, outside the walls of the town; and the three clergy attached to this church had to minister to a population scattered over some thirty-six villages, and were moreover hampered by many restrictions, e.g. being unable to communicate a sick person without a permit from the local Roman Catholic priest. Here Schmolck remained till the close of his life, becoming in 1708 archidiaconus, in 1712 senior, and in 1714 pastor primarius and inspector. Probably as the result of his exhausting labours he had a stroke of paralysis on Laetare (Mid-Lent) Sunday, 1730, which for a time laid him aside altogether, and after which he never recovered the use of his right hand. For five years more he was still able to officiate, preaching for the last time on a Fastday in 1735. But two more strokes of paralysis followed, and then cataract came on, relieved for a time by a successful operation, but returning again incurably. For the last months of his life he was confined to bed, till the message of release came to him, on the anniversary of his wedding, Feb. 12, 1737. (Koch, v. 463; Bode, p. 144; Goedeke's Grundriss, vol. iii., 1887, p. 306; sketch prefixed to Ledderhose's edition of Schmolck's Geistliche Lieder, Halle, 1857, &c.) Schmolck was well known in his own district as a popular and useful preacher, a diligent pastor, and a man of wonderful tact and discretion. It was however his devotional books, and the original hymns therein contained, that brought him into wider popularity, and carried his name and fame all over Germany. Long lists of his works and of the various editions through which many of them passed are given by Koch, Bode and Goedehe. It is rather difficult to trace the hymns, as they are copied from one book of his into another, &c. Schmolck was the most popular hymnwriter of his time, and was hailed as the "Silesian Rist," as the "second Gerhardt," &c. Nor was he altogether unworthy of such praise. It is true that he did not possess the soaring genius of Gerhardt. Nor had he even Gerhardt's concise, simple style, but instead was too fond of high-sounding expressions, of plays upon words, of far-fetched but often recurring contrasts, and in general of straining after effect, especially in the pieces written in his later years. In fact he wrote a great deal too much, and latterly without proper attention to concentration or to proportion. Besides Cantatas, occasional pieces for weddings, funerals, &c, he is the author of some 900 hymns, properly so called. These were written for all sorts of occasions, and range over the whole field of churchly, family, and individual life. Naturally they are not all alike good; and those in his first three collections are decidedly the best. A deep and genuine personal religion, and a fervent love to the Saviour, inspire his best hymns; and as they are not simply thought out but felt, they come from the heart to the heart. The best of them are also written in a clear, flowing, forcible, natural, popular style, and abound in sententious sayings, easily to be remembered. Even of these many are, however, more suited for family use than for public worship. Nevertheless they very soon came into extensive use, not only in Silesia, but all over Germany. A number of Schmolck's hymns [that] have passed into English are:— i. Der beste Freund ist in dem Himmel. Love of Jesus. First published in his Heilige Flammen (ed. 1709, p. 100), in 6 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled "The best Friend." The translation in common use is:— A faithful friend is waiting yonder. This is a good translation, omitting stanza v., as No. 293, in Kennedy, 1863. ii. Die Woche geht zum Ende. Saturday Evening. In his Andächtige Hertze, 1714, p. 116, in 10 stanzas of 8 lines, entitled "Evening Hymn," and appointed for Evening Prayer on Saturday. In the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 1158. Translated as:— The week draws near its ending. This is a good translation of stanzas i., vi., vii., x., marked as by "A. G.," as No. 81 in the Dalston Hospital Hymn Book 1848. Other trs. are: (1) “Though now the week is ending," by H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 107. (2) “The week at length is over," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 137. iii. Gott du hist selbst die Liehe. Holy Matrimony. Translated as:— O God, "Who all providest. This is a good translation, omitting stanza iii., by J. M. Sloan, as No. 312 in J. H. Wilson's Service of Praise, 1865. iv. Halleluja! Jesus lebt. Easter. In his Bochim und Elim, 1731, p. 67, in 5 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled "Hallelujah! at the grave of Jesus." In the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 296. Tr. as:— Hallelujah! Lo, He wakes. By E. Cronenwett, omitting st. iv., as No. 79 in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal 1880. Another translation is: "Hallelujah! Jesus lives! Life, immortal life, He gives." This is a full and good translation, by Miss Warner, 1858, p. 486, repeated in the Treasury of Sacred Song, Kirkwall, n.d. v. Heute mir und Morgen dir. Funeral Hymn. In his Schmuck und Asche, 1717, p. 252, in 6 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled "Daily Dying". The tr. in common use is:— Today mine, tomorrow thine. This is a good and full translation, by Miss Warner, in her Hymns of the Church Militant, 1858, p. 260. vi. Je grösser Kreuz, je näher Himmel. Cross and Consolation. In his Andächtige Hertz, 1714, p. 273, in 9 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled "Hymn of Cross and Consolation." By its sententiousness and its manifold illustrations of the power of the Cross it has been a favourite with many. Translated as:— 1. Greater the Cross, the nearer heaven. 2. The more the cross, the nearer heaven. Another translation is: "The heavier the cross, the nearer heaven," by J. D. Burns, in the Family Treasury, 1859, p. 160. vii. Jesus soil die Losung sein. New Year. The translation in common use is:— Jesus shall the watchword he. Another translation is: "Jesu's name shall be our watchword," by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868, p. 689. viii. Licht vom Licht, erleuchte mich. Sunday Morning. Translated as:— Light of Light, enlighten me. This is a very good tr. omitting stanza vii., by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858, p. 66, and thence in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 17. Other translations are: (1) "Light of Light! illumine me," by H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 6. (2) "O thou blessed Light of Light," by Miss Dunn, 1857, p. 74. ix. Meinen Jesum lass ich nicht, Ach was wollt ich hessres haben. Love to Christ. Translated as:— I'll with Jesus never part. This is a translation of st. i., ii., iv., as stanzas iii.-v. of No. 378 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789. In the ed. of 1886, No. 452 (see p. 614, i.), the part from Schmolck begins, "He is mine and I am His" (the translation of stanza ii.). Another tr. is: "I'll not leave Jesus—-never, never," by Miss Warner, 1858, p. 509. x. Mein Gott, ich weiss wohl dass ich sterbe. For the Dying. Translated as:— My God! I know that I must die, My mortal. Other trs. are: (1) "That I shall die full well 1 know," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 232). (2) "My God! I know full well that I must die," by Miss Warner, 1858, p. 344. (3) "My God, I know that I must die; I know," by G. Moultrie, in his Espousals of S. Dorothea, 1870. xi. Mein Jesus lebt! was soil ich sterben. Easter. Translated as:— My Saviour lives; I shall not perish. xii. 0 wie fröhlich, o wie selig. Eternal Life. Translated as:— Oh how joyous, oh how blessed. Another tr. is: "Oh, how blest beyond our telling." xiii. Schmückt das Fest mit Maien. Whitsuntide. Translated as:— Come, deck our feast today. xiv. Thut mir auf die schöne Pforte. Sunday. Translated as:— 1. Open now thy gates of beauty. This is a good tr., omitting stanza iii., vii., by Miss Winkworth, in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 15. 2. Open wide the gates of beauty. This is a translation of stanzas i., ii., iv., vi.-vii., by H. L. Hastings, dated 1885, as No. 1076, in his Songs of Pilgrimage, 1886. Another tr. is: "Throw the glorious gates wide open," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 146. xv. Weine nicht, Gott lebet noch. Cross and Consolation. Tr. as:— "Weep not,-—Jesus lives on high. Another tr. is: "Weep not, for God, our God, doth live," by Dr. R. Maguire, 1883, p. 59. xvi. Willkommen, Held im Streite. Easter. The translation in common use is:— Welcome Thou victor in the strife. This is a good translation omitting st. ii.—iv., by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 1st Ser., 1855, p. 91. Hymns not in English common use:-- xvii. Ach wenn ich dich, mein Gott, nur habe. Love to God. Founded on Ps. lxxiii. 25, 26. Translated as "My God, if I possess but Thee," by G. Moultrie, in his Espousals of S. Dorothea, 1870. xviii. An Gott will ich gedenken. Remembering God's Love and Care. In his Heilige Flammen (ed. 1707, p. 59; ed. 1709, p. 131), in 6 stanzas of 8 lines, and Burg's Gesang-Buch, Breslau, 1746, No. 112. Translated as "My God will I remember," by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868. xix. Der Sabbath ist vergangen. Sunday Evening. Tr. as "The Sabbath now is over," by Dr. H. Mills, 1856, p. 226. xx. Du angenehmer Tag. Sunday. In his Lustige Sabbath, 1712, p. 1, in 8 stanzas of 6 lines. Tr. as “Thou ever welcome day," by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868, p. 688. xxi. Endlich, endlich, muss es doch. Cross and Consolation. Translated as "Yes, at last, our God shall make," in the Christian Examiner, Boston, U.S., Sept., 1860, p. 251. xxii. Gedenke mein, mein Gott, gedenke mein. For the Dying. Translated as "Remember me, my God! remember me," by Miss Borthwick, in Hymns from the Land of Luther 1854, p. 9. xxiii. Geh, müder Leib, zu deiner Euh. Evening. Translated as "Go, wearied body, to thy rest," by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868. In his Lustige Sabbath, 1712, p. 35, in 10 stanzas of 6 lines, and Burg’s Gesang-Buch, Breslau, 1746, No. 403. Translated as "King, to Jews and Gentiles given," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845. xxiv. Gott der Juden,Gott der Heiden. Epiphany. Translated as “King, to Jews and Gentiles given,” by Dr. H. Mills, 1845. xxv. Gott lebt, wie kann ich traurig sein. Trust in God. Translated as "God lives! Can I despair," by Miss Warner, 1869, p. 44. xxvi. Gott mit uns, Immanuel. New Year. Translated as "God with us! Immanuel, Open with the year before us," by Dr. R. P. Dunn, in Sacred Lyrics from the German, Philadelphia, U.S., 1859, p. 166. xxvii. Hier ist Immanuel! New Year. Translated as "Here is Immanuel!" by Miss Manington, 1864, p. 24. xxviii. Hilf, Heifer, hilf! ich muss verzagen. Cross and Consolation. Translated as "Help, Saviour, help, I sink, I die,” in the Monthly Packet, vol. xviii., 1859, p. 664. xix. Ich habe Lust zu scheiden. For the Dying. Tr. as "Weary, waiting to depart," by Mrs. Findlater, in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 1855, p 130. xxx. Ich sterbe täglich, und mein Leben. For the Dying. Translated as "Both life and death are kept by Thee" (st. iv.), by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868, p. 689. xxxi. Mein Gott, du hast mich eingeladen. Sunday. Translated as "My God, Thou hast the invite given," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 150. xxxii. Mein Gott! du wohnst in einem Lichte. Holy Scripture. Translated as "In glory bright, O God, Thou dwellest," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845. xxxiii. Mein Gott, ich klopf an deine Pforte. Supplication. Tr.Translated as "given as "Mein Gott, mein Erstes und mein Alles." Translated as "My God! the Source of all my blessing," in the British Herald, August, 1866, p. 312; repeated in Reid's Praise Book, 1872. xxxv. Mein Gott, weil ich in meinem Leben. The ChristiaWho, Lord, has any good whatever," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845, p. 91. xxxiv. Mein Gott, mein Alles Uber Alles. Trust in God. Sometimes n Life. Translated as "Most High! with reverence to fear Thee," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845, p. 114.). xxxvi. Nun hab ich überwunden; Zu guter Nacht, o Welt. For the Dying. Translated as "Now soon I shall have conquer'd," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 87. xxxvii. Seht welch ein Mensch ist das. Passiontide. The translations are (1) "See, what a man is this! How tearful is His glance," by J. Kelly, in the British Messenger, Feb., 1S68; repeated in the Family Treasury, 1868, p. 691. (2) "See what a man is this, O glances," by Miss Warner, 1869, p. 32. xxxviii. Sei getreu bis in den Tod. Christian Faithfulness. Translated as "Be thou faithful unto death! Let not troubles nor distresses," by R. Massie, in the Day of Rest, 1878, vol. ix. p. 219. xxxix. Theures Wort aus Gottes Munde. Holy Scripture. Translated as "Word by God the Father spoken," by Miss Manington, 1863. xl. Was Gott thut das ist wohlgethan! Er giebt und nimmt auch wieder. On the Death of a Child. The trs. are (1) "What God does is well done, "Who takes what He gave," by W. Graham, in his The Jordan and the Rhine, London, 1854, p. 251. (2) "Whatever God doth is well done, He gives, &c," by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868, p. 688. xli. Wer will mich von der Liebe scheiden. Faith. Translated as "Who can my soul from Jesus sever," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 39. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

St. Ambrose

340 - 397 Person Name: Ambrosius Author of "Großer Gott, wir loben dich" in Evangeliums-Lieder 1 und 2 (Gospel Hymns) Ambrosius (St. Ambrose), second son and third child of Ambrosius, Prefect of the Gauls, was born at Lyons, Aries, or Treves--probably the last--in 340 A.D. On the death of his father in 353 his mother removed to Rome with her three children. Ambrose went through the usual course of education, attaining considerable proficiency in Greek; and then entered the profession which his elder brother Satyrus had chosen, that of the law. In this he so distinguished himself that, after practising in the court of Probus, the Praetorian Prefect of Italy, he was, in 374, appointed Consular of Liguria and Aemilia. This office necessitated his residence in Milan. Not many months after, Auxentius, bishop of Milan, who had joined the Arian party, died; and much was felt to depend upon the person appointed as his successor. The church in which the election was held was so filled with excited people that the Consular found it necessary to take steps fur preserving the peace, and himself exhorted them to peace and order: when a voice suddenly exclaimed, "Ambrose is Bishop," and the cry was taken up on all sides. He was compelled to accept the post, though still only a catechumen; was forthwith baptized, and in a week more consecrated Bishop, Dec. 7, 374. The death of the Emperor Valentinian I., in 375, brought him into collision with Justina, Valentinian's second wife, an adherent of the Arian party: Ambrose was supported by Gratian, the elder son of Valentinian, and by Theodosius, whom Gratian in 379 associated with himself in the empire. Gratian was assassinated in 383 by a partisau of Maximus, and Ambrose was sent to treat with the usurper, a piece of diplomacy in which he was fairly successful. He found himself, however, left to carry on the contest with the Arians and the Empress almost alone. He and the faithful gallantly defended the churches which the heretics attempted to seize. Justina was foiled: and the advance of Maximus on Milan led to her flight, and eventually to her death in 388. It was in this year, or more probably the year before (387), that Ambrose received into the Church by baptism his great scholar Augustine, once a Manichaean heretic. Theodosius was now virtually head of the Roman empire, his colleague Valentinian II., Justina's son, being a youth of only 17. In the early part of 390 the news of a riot at Thessalonica, brought to him at Milan, caused him to give a hasty order for a general massacre at that city, and his command was but too faithfully obeyed. On his presenting himself a few days after at the door of the principal church in Milan, he was met by Ambrose, who refused him entrance till he should have done penance for his crime. It was not till Christmas, eight months after, that the Emperor declared his penitence, and was received into communion again by the Bishop. Valentinian was murdered by Arbogastes, a Frank general, in 392; and the murderer and his puppet emperor Eugenius were defeated by Theodosius in 394. But the fatigues of the campaign told on the Emperor, and he died the following year. Ambrose preached his funeral sermon, as he had done that of Valentinian.   The loss of these two friends and supporters was a severe blow to Ambrose; two unquiet years passed, and then, worn with labours and anxieties, he himself rested from his labours on Easter Eve, 397. It was the 4th of April, and on that day the great Bishop of Milan is remembered by the Western Church, but Rome commemorates his consecration only, Dec. 7th. Great he was indeed, as a scholar, an organiser, a statesman; still greater as a theologian, the earnest and brilliant defender of the Catholic faith against the Arians of the West, just as Athanasius (whose name, one cannot but remark, is the same as his in meaning) was its champion against those of the East. We are now mainly concerned with him as musician and poet, "the father of Church song" as he is called by Grimm. He introduced from the East the practice of antiphonal chanting, and began the task, which St. Gregory completed, of systematizing the music of the Church. As a writer of sacred poetry he is remarkable for depth and severity. He does not warm with his subject, like Adam of St. Victor, or St. Bernard. "We feel," says Abp. Trench, "as though there were a certain coldness in his hymns, an aloofness of the author from his subject. "A large number of hymns has been attributed to his pen; Daniel gives no fewer than 92 called Ambrosian. Of these the great majority (including one on himself) cannot possibly be his; there is more or less doubt about the rest. The authorities on the subject are the Benedictine ed. of his works, the Psalterium, or Hymnary, of Cardinal Thomasius, and the Thesaurus Hymnologicus of Daniel. The Benedictine editors give 12 hymns as assignable to him, as follows:—1.  Aeterna Christi munera. 2.  Aeterne rerum Conditor. 3.  Consors Paterni luminii. 4.  Deus Creator omnium. 5.  Fit porta Christi pervia, 6.  Illuminans Altissimus. 7.  Jam surgit hora tertia. 8.  0 Lux Beata Trinitas. 9.  Orabo mente Dominum. 10.  Somno refectis artubus. 11.  Splendor Paternae gloriae. 12.  Veni Redemptor gentium. Histories of these hymns, together with details of translations into English, are given in this work, and may be found under their respective first lines. The Bollandists and Daniel are inclined to attribute to St. Ambrose a hymn, Grates tibi Jesu novas, on the finding of the relics of SS. Gervasius and Protasius. These, we know, were discovered by him in 386, and it is by no means unlikely that the bishop should have commemorated in verse an event which he announces by letter to his sister Marcellina with so much satisfaction, not to say exultation.A beautiful tradition makes the Te Deum laudamus to have been composed under inspiration, and recited alternately, by SS. Ambrose and Augustine immediately after the baptism of the latter in 387. But the story rests upon a passage which there is every reason to consider spurious, in the Chronicon of Dacius, Bishop of Milan in 550. There is no hint of such an occurrence in the Confessions of St. Augustine, nor in Paulinue's life of St. Ambrose, nor in any authentic writing of St. Ambrose himself. The hymn is essentially a compilation, and there is much reason to believe, with Merati, that it originated in the 5th century, in the monastery of St. Honoratus at Lerins. [Te Deum.] -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) Also known as: Ambrotio, Saint, Bishop of Milan Ambroise, Saint, Bishop of Milan Ambrosio de Milán Ambrosius Mediolanensis Ambrosius Saint, Bp. of Milan Ambrosius von Mailand Aurelio Ambrogio, Saint, Bishop of Milan Aurelius Ambrosius, Saint, Bishop of Milan

Joseph Haydn

1732 - 1809 Person Name: F. Haydn Composer of "[Endlich, endlich muß es doch]" in Evangelisches Gesangbuch. Die kleine Palme, mit Anhang Francis Joseph Haydn; b. 1732, Rohrau, Austria; d. 1809, Vienna Evangelical Lutheran Hymnal, 1908


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