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Frances R. Havergal

1836 - 1879 Scripture: 1 Corinthians 6:19-20 Author of "Who Is on the Lord's Side?" in Trinity Hymnal (Rev. ed.) Havergal, Frances Ridley, daughter of the Rev. W. H. Havergal, was born at Astley, Worcestershire, Dec. 14, 1836. Five years later her father removed to the Rectory of St. Nicholas, Worcester. In August, 1850, she entered Mrs. Teed's school, whose influence over her was most beneficial. In the following year she says, "I committed my soul to the Saviour, and earth and heaven seemed brighter from that moment." A short sojourn in Germany followed, and on her return she was confirmed in Worcester Cathedral, July 17, 1853. In 1860 she left Worcester on her father resigning the Rectory of St. Nicholas, and resided at different periods in Leamington, and at Caswall Bay, Swansea, broken by visits to Switzerland, Scotland, and North Wales. She died at Caswall Bay, Swansea, June 3, 1879. Miss Havergal's scholastic acquirements were extensive, embracing several modern languages, together with Greek and Hebrew. She does not occupy, and did not claim for herself, a prominent place as a poet, but by her distinct individuality she carved out a niche which she alone could fill. Simply and sweetly she sang the love of God, and His way of salvation. To this end, and for this object, her whole life and all her powers were consecrated. She lives and speaks in every line of her poetry. Her poems are permeated with the fragrance of her passionate love of Jesus. Her religious views and theological bias are distinctly set forth in her poems, and may be described as mildly Calvinistic, without the severe dogmatic tenet of reprobation. The burden of her writings is a free and full salvation, through the Redeemer's merits, for every sinner who will receive it, and her life was devoted to the proclamation of this truth by personal labours, literary efforts, and earnest interest in Foreign Missions. [Rev. James Davidson, B.A.] Miss Havergal's hymns were frequently printed by J. & R. Parlane as leaflets, and by Caswell & Co. as ornamental cards. They were gathered together from time to time and published in her works as follows:— (1) Ministry of Song, 1869; (2) Twelve Sacred Songs for Little Singers, 1870; (3) Under the Surface, 1874; (4) Loyal Responses, 1878; (5) Life Mosaic, 1879; (6) Life Chords, 1880; (7) Life Echoes, 1883. About 15 of the more important of Miss Havergal's hymns, including "Golden harps are sounding," "I gave my life for thee," "Jesus, Master, Whose I am," "Lord, speak to me," "O Master, at Thy feet," "Take my life and let it be," "Tell it out among the heathen," &c, are annotated under their respective first lines. The rest, which are in common use, number nearly 50. These we give, together with dates and places of composition, from the Havergal mss. [manuscript], and the works in which they were published. Those, and they are many, which were printed in Parlane's Series of Leaflets are distinguished as (P., 1872, &c), and those in Caswell’s series (C., 1873, &c). 1. A happy New Year! Even such may it be. New Year. From Under the Surface, 1874. 2. Certainly I will be with thee. Birthday. Sept. 1871, at Perry Barr. (P. 1871.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 3. Church of God, beloved and chosen. Sanctified in Christ Jesus, 1873. (P. 1873.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 4. God Almighty, King of nations. Sovereignty of God. 1872. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 5. God doth not bid thee wait. God faithful to His promises. Oct. 22, 1868, at Oakhampton. (P. 1869.) Published in Ministry of Song, 1869, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 6. God of heaven, hear our singing. A Child's hymn for Missions. Oct. 22, 1869, at Leamington. Published in her Twelve Sacred Songs for Little Singers, 1870, and her Life Chords, 1880. 7. God will take care of you, All through the day. The Good Shepherd. In Mrs. Brock's Children's Hymn Book, 1881. 8. God's reiterated all. New Year. 1873, at Winterdyne. (C. 1873.) Published in Loyal Responses, 1878, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 9. Have you not a word for Jesus? Boldness for the Truth. Nov. 1871, at Perry Barr. (P. 1872.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 10. He hath spoken in the darkness. Voice of God in sorrow. June 10,1869, at Neuhausen. (P. 1870.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and in Life Mosaic, 1879. 11. Hear the Father's ancient promise. Promise of the Holy Spirit. Aug. 1870. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 12. Holy and Infinite! Viewless, Eternal. Infinity of God. 1872. Published in Under the Surf ace, 1874, and L. Mosaic, 1879. 13. Holy brethren, called and chosen. Election a motive for Earnestness. 1872. Published in Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1876. 14. I am trusting Thee, Lord Jesus. Faith. Sept. 1874, at Ormont Dessona. (P. 1874.) Published in Loyal Responses, 1878, and Life Chords, 1880. Miss Havergal’s tune, Urbane (Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1048), was composed for this hymn. The hymn was the author's "own favourite," and was found in her pocket Bible after her death. 15. I bring my sins to Thee. Besting all on Jesus. June, 1870. (P. 1870.) Printed in the Sunday Magazine, 1870, and Home Words, 1872. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Chords, 1880. 16. I could not do without Thee. Jesus All in All. May 7, 1873. (P. 1873.) Printed in Home Words, 1873, and published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 17. In full and glad surrender. Confirmation. Miss Havergal's sister says this hymn was “The epitome of her [Miss F. R. H.'s] life and the focus of its sunshine." It is a beautiful hymn of personal consecration to God at all times. 18. In the evening there is weeping. Sorrow followed by Joy. June 19, 1869, at the Hotel Jungfraublick, Interlaken. "It rained all day, except a very bright interval before dinner. Curious long soft white clouds went slowly creeping along the Scheinige Platte; I wrote “Evening Tears and Morning Songs” (Marg. reading of Ps. xxx. 5.)" (P. 1870.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874. 19. Increase our faith, beloved Lord. Increase of Faith desired. In Loyal Responses, 1878, in 11 stanzas of 4 lines, on St. Luke xvii. 5. It is usually given in an abridged form. 20. Is it for me, dear Saviour? Heaven anticipated. Nov. 1871, at Perry Barr. (P. 1872.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 21. Israel of God, awaken. Christ our Righteousness. May, 1871, at Perry Barr. (P. 1872.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 22. Jehovah's covenant shall endure. The Divine Covenant, 1872. Published in Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1876. 23 Jesus, blessed Saviour. New Year, Nov. 25, 1872, at Leamington. (P. 1873.) Printed in the Dayspring Magazine, Jan. 1873, and published in Life Chords, 1880. 24. Jesus only! In the shadow. Jesus All in All. Dec. 4, 1870, at Pyrmont Villa. (P. & C. 1871.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and in Life Mosaic, 1879. 25. Joined to Christ by [in] mystic union. The Church the Body of Christ. May, 1871, at Perry Barr. (P. 1872.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, Life Mosaic, 1879. 26. Just when Thou wilt, 0 Master, call. Resignation. In Loyal Responses, 1878, in 5 stanzas of 4 lines, and Whiting's Hymns for the Church Catholic, 1882. 27. King Eternal and Immortal. God Eternal. Written at Perry Villa, Perry Barr, Feb. 11, 1871, and Published in Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1876; Under the Surface, 1874 ; and Life Mosaic, 1879. 28. Light after darkness, Gain after loss. Peace in Jesus, and the Divine Reward. In Sankey's Sacred Songs and Solos, from her Life Mosaic, 1879. 29. Like a river glorious, Is God's perfect Peace. Peace. In her Loyal Responses, 1878, in 3 st. of 8 1., with the chorus, "Stayed upon Jehovah." In several collections. 30. Master, speak! Thy servant heareth. Fellowship with and Assistance from Christ desired. Sunday evening, May 19, 1867, at Weston-super-Mare. Published in Ministry of Song, 1869, and L. Mosaic, 1879. It is very popular. 31. New mercies, new blessings, new light on thy way. New Life in Christ. 1874, at Winterdyne. (C. 1874.) Published in Under His Shadow, 1879, Life Chords, 1880. 32. Not your own, but His ye are. Missions. Jan. 21, 1867. (C. 1867.) Published in Ministry of Song, 1869; Life Mosaic, 1879; and the Hymnal for Church Missions, 1884. 33. Now let us sing the angels' song. Christmas. In her Life Mosaic, 1879; and W. B. Stevenson's School Hymnal, 1880. 34. Now the daylight goes away. Evening. Oct. 17, 1869, at Leamington. Published in Songs for Little Singers, 1870, and Life Chords, 1880. It originally read, " Now the light has gone away." 35. Now the sowing and the weeping. Sorrow followed by Joy. Jan. 4, 1870, at Leamington. Printed in Sunday at Home, 1870 ; and published in Under the Surface, 1874, and L. Mosaic, 1879. 36. 0 Glorious God and King. Praise to the Father, Feb. 1872. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 37. 0 Saviour, precious [holy] Saviour. Christ worshipped by the Church. Nov. 1870, at Leamington. (P. 1870.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 38. O thou chosen Church of Jesus. Election. April 6, 1871. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and L. Mosaic, 1879. 39. O what everlasting blessings God outpoureth on His own. Salvation everlasting. Aug. 12, 1871, at Perry Barr. (P. 1871.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and L. Mosaic, 1879. 40. Our Father, our Father, Who dwellest in light. The blessing of the Father desired. May 14, 1872. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. Miss Havergal's tune, Tertius, was composed for this hymn. 41. Our Saviour and our King. Presentation of the Church to the Father. (Heb. ii. 13.) May, 1871, at Perry Barr. (P. 1871.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and L. Mosaic, 1879. 42. Precious, precious blood of Jesus. The precious Blood. Sept. 1874, at Ormont Dessons. (C.) Published in Loyal Responses, 1878, and Life Chords, 1880. 43. Sing, O heavens, the Lord hath done it. Redemption. In her Life Mosaic, 1879, and the Universal Hymn Book, 1885. 44. Sit down beneath His shadow. Holy Communion. Nov. 27, 1870, at Leamington. (P. 1870.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 45. Sovereign Lord and gracious Master. Grace consummated in Glory. Oct. 22, 1871. (P. 1872.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 46. Standing at the portal of the opening year. New Year. Jan. 4, 1873. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Chords, 1880. 47. To Thee, 0 Comforter divine. Praise to the Holy Spirit. Aug. 11, 1872, at Perry Barr. Published in Under the Surface 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. Miss Havergal's tune, Tryphosa, was written for this hymn. 48. True-hearted, whole-hearted, faithful and loyal. Faithfulness to the Saviour. In her Loyal Responses, 1878, and the Universal Hymn Book, 1885. 49. What know we, Holy God, of Thee? God's Spirituality, 1872. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 50. Who is on the Lord's side? Home Missions. Oct. 13, 1877. Published in Loyal Responses, 1878, andLife Chords, 1880. 51. With quivering heart and trembling will. Resignation. July, 10, 1866, at Luccombe Rectory. (P. 1866.) Published in Ministry of Song, 1869, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 52. Will ye not come to Him for life? The Gospel Invitation. 1873. Published in Snepp's Songs of Grace and Glory, 1876. 53. Worthy of all adoration. Praise to Jesus as the Lamb upon the throne. Feb. 26 1867, at Oakhampton. Published in Ministry of Song, 1869, and Life Mosaic, 1874. It is pt. iii. of the "Threefold Praise," and was suggested by the "Worthy is the Lamb," the "Hallelujah" and "Amen" choruses in Handel's Messiah. 54. Ye who hear the blessed call. The Invitation of the Spirit and the Bride. March, 1869, at Leamington. (P. 1869.) Published in Ministry of Song, 1869, and Life Mosaic, 1879. Suggested by, and written for, the Young Men's Christian Association. 55. Yes, He knows the way is dreary. Encouragement. 1867. Published in Ministry of Song, 1869. Most of these hymns are given in Snepp's Songs of Grace and Glory, 1872]and 1876, his Appendix, 1874, and the Musical edition, 1880, and many of them are also in several other hymnbooks, including Hymns Ancient & Modern, Thring, Church Hymns, Hymnal Companion, &c, and some of the leading American collections. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ============================== Havergal, Frances Ridley, p. 496, i. Miss Havergal's Poetical Works were published in 2 vols. in 1884 (Lond., J. Nisbet); and the hymns therein are accompanied by notes. From these volumes, and the Havergal manuscript, we gather the following facts concerning additional hymns in common use: 1. In God's great field of labour. Work for Christ. Written Feb. 27, 1867, and published in her Ministry of Song, I860, and later works. In Snepp's Songs of Grace and Glory, 1872, it begins with stanza ii., "Sing to the little children." “The poem expresses her own life-ministry of song, and relates true incidents" in that life. [Hav. mss.] 2. Only a mortal's power. Consecration of Self to Christ. Published in her Loyal Responses, 1878, in 7 stanzas of 4 lines, and headed "Only.” In Common Praise, 1879, stanzas ii.-vi., are given for Confirmation as, "Only one heart to give." 3. Through the yesterday of ages. Jesus always the same. Written at Leamington, Nov. 1876, and published in her Loyal Responses, 1878. 4. What hast Thou done for me, 0 Thou my mighty Friend. Good Friday. Written at Leamington, Jan. 1877, and pub. in Loyal Responses, 1878. 5. Yes, He knows the way is dreary, p. 498, i. 55. This hymn was written at Shareshill Parsonage, Nov. 17, 1865, and first printed as one of Parlane's leaflets; then in Lyra Britannica, 1867; and later, in several of her books. It was "suggested by a letter from her niece, A. M. S., at school, and written to console her when weary, lonely, and the only absentee at the rejoicings for her brother J. H. S.'s coming of age." [Hav. mss.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907) =================== Havergal, Frances R., pp. 426, ii., 1569, ii. During the past fifteen years Miss Havergal's hymns have been in great request by compilers of hymnals for Missions and Conventions. In addition to the large number already annotated in this Dictionary, the following are also in common use:— 1. Begin at once! in the pleasant days. [Temperance.] From her Poetical Works, vol. i., p. 303, into The Sunday School Hymnary, 1905. In her Poetical Works. It is given as a "Band of Hope Song," and dated "May, 1876." 2. God in heaven, hear our singing. An altered form of her "God of heaven, hear our singing," p. 497, i. 6. 3. Holy Father, Thou hast spoken. [Holy Spirit desired.] Written May 5, 1876. P. Works, 1874, ii., p. 261. 4. I love. I love my Master. [Jesus the object of love.] Written at Fins, Hants., July 16, 1876. In her Loyal Responses, 1878, and her Poetical Works, 18S4, ii., p. 274. 5. I love to feel that I am taught. [Love of Divine Teaching.] Written at Morecambe Bay, Aug., 1867, for her Ministry of Song, 1869. Included in her Poetical Works, 1884, i., p. 36. 6. Jesus, Thy life is mine. [Union with Christ.] Written June 2, 1876. Poetical Works, 1884, ii., p. 268. 7. Looking unto Jesus, Never need we yield. [Jesus, All in All.] Dated 1876. P. Works, 1884, ii., p. 253. 8. Master, how shall I bless Thy Name! [Holy Service.] Written at Whitby, Sept. 27, 1875. A long hymn of 17 stanzas of 6 lines. P. Works, 1884, ii., p. 280. 9. Resting on the faithfulness. [Union with Christ.] A metrical epitome of a dozen or more of the attributes of Our Lord and His manifestation of loving kindness towards men, in which the word "Resting" is used eighteen times. Written June 11, 1876. Poetical Works, 1884, ii., p. 260. 10. Singing for Jesus, our Saviour and King. [Praise of Jesus.] Written at Winterdyne, June 12. 1872; published in her Under the Surface, 1874, p. 94, and her P. Works, 1884, ii., p. 70. 11. Unfurl the Christian Standard with firm and fearless hand. [Courage for the Christian Warfare. This begins with st. iv. of her hymn, "Unfurl the Christian Standard, lift it manfully on high," written at Perry Barr, Sep. 23, 1872 ; published in her Under the Surface, 1874; and her Poetical Works, 1884, ii. 12. Unto him that hath Thou givest. [Growth in Grace.] Written at Leasowes, April 12, 1876. P. Works, 1884, ii. 259. Of these hymns Nos. 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 12 were published in the first instance in J. Mountain's Hymns of Consecration and Faith, 1876. At the present time (1907) the number of Miss Havergal's hymns in common use reaches nearly one hundred. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

Charles Wesley

1707 - 1788 Scripture: 1 Corinthians 6:14 Author of "Christ the Lord Is Risen Today" in Rejoice in the Lord Charles Wesley, M.A. was the great hymn-writer of the Wesley family, perhaps, taking quantity and quality into consideration, the great hymn-writer of all ages. Charles Wesley was the youngest son and 18th child of Samuel and Susanna Wesley, and was born at Epworth Rectory, Dec. 18, 1707. In 1716 he went to Westminster School, being provided with a home and board by his elder brother Samuel, then usher at the school, until 1721, when he was elected King's Scholar, and as such received his board and education free. In 1726 Charles Wesley was elected to a Westminster studentship at Christ Church, Oxford, where he took his degree in 1729, and became a college tutor. In the early part of the same year his religious impressions were much deepened, and he became one of the first band of "Oxford Methodists." In 1735 he went with his brother John to Georgia, as secretary to General Oglethorpe, having before he set out received Deacon's and Priest's Orders on two successive Sundays. His stay in Georgia was very short; he returned to England in 1736, and in 1737 came under the influence of Count Zinzendorf and the Moravians, especially of that remarkable man who had so large a share in moulding John Wesley's career, Peter Bonier, and also of a Mr. Bray, a brazier in Little Britain. On Whitsunday, 1737, he "found rest to his soul," and in 1738 he became curate to his friend, Mr. Stonehouse, Vicar of Islington, but the opposition of the churchwardens was so great that the Vicar consented that he "should preach in his church no more." Henceforth his work was identified with that of his brother John, and he became an indefatigable itinerant and field preacher. On April 8, 1749, he married Miss Sarah Gwynne. His marriage, unlike that of his brother John, was a most happy one; his wife was accustomed to accompany him on his evangelistic journeys, which were as frequent as ever until the year 1756," when he ceased to itinerate, and mainly devoted himself to the care of the Societies in London and Bristol. Bristol was his headquarters until 1771, when he removed with his family to London, and, besides attending to the Societies, devoted himself much, as he had done in his youth, to the spiritual care of prisoners in Newgate. He had long been troubled about the relations of Methodism to the Church of England, and strongly disapproved of his brother John's "ordinations." Wesley-like, he expressed his disapproval in the most outspoken fashion, but, as in the case of Samuel at an earlier period, the differences between the brothers never led to a breach of friendship. He died in London, March 29, 1788, and was buried in Marylebone churchyard. His brother John was deeply grieved because he would not consent to be interred in the burial-ground of the City Road Chapel, where he had prepared a grave for himself, but Charles said, "I have lived, and I die, in the Communion of the Church of England, and I will be buried in the yard of my parish church." Eight clergymen of the Church of England bore his pall. He had a large family, four of whom survived him; three sons, who all became distinguished in the musical world, and one daughter, who inherited some of her father's poetical genius. The widow and orphans were treated with the greatest kindness and generosity by John Wesley. As a hymn-writer Charles Wesley was unique. He is said to have written no less than 6500 hymns, and though, of course, in so vast a number some are of unequal merit, it is perfectly marvellous how many there are which rise to the highest degree of excellence. His feelings on every occasion of importance, whether private or public, found their best expression in a hymn. His own conversion, his own marriage, the earthquake panic, the rumours of an invasion from France, the defeat of Prince Charles Edward at Culloden, the Gordon riots, every Festival of the Christian Church, every doctrine of the Christian Faith, striking scenes in Scripture history, striking scenes which came within his own view, the deaths of friends as they passed away, one by one, before him, all furnished occasions for the exercise of his divine gift. Nor must we forget his hymns for little children, a branch of sacred poetry in which the mantle of Dr. Watts seems to have fallen upon him. It would be simply impossible within our space to enumerate even those of the hymns which have become really classical. The saying that a really good hymn is as rare an appearance as that of a comet is falsified by the work of Charles Wesley; for hymns, which are really good in every respect, flowed from his pen in quick succession, and death alone stopped the course of the perennial stream. It has been the common practice, however for a hundred years or more to ascribe all translations from the German to John Wesley, as he only of the two brothers knew that language; and to assign to Charles Wesley all the original hymns except such as are traceable to John Wesley through his Journals and other works. The list of 482 original hymns by John and Charles Wesley listed in this Dictionary of Hymnology have formed an important part of Methodist hymnody and show the enormous influence of the Wesleys on the English hymnody of the nineteenth century. -- Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================== Charles Wesley, the son of Samuel Wesley, was born at Epworth, Dec. 18, 1707. He was educated at Westminster School and afterwards at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. In 1735, he took Orders and immediately proceeded with his brother John to Georgia, both being employed as missionaries of the S.P.G. He returned to England in 1736. For many years he engaged with his brother in preaching the Gospel. He died March 29, 1788. To Charles Wesley has been justly assigned the appellation of the "Bard of Methodism." His prominence in hymn writing may be judged from the fact that in the "Wesleyan Hymn Book," 623 of the 770 hymns were written by him; and he published more than thirty poetical works, written either by himself alone, or in conjunction with his brother. The number of his separate hymns is at least five thousand. --Annotations of the Hymnal, Charles Hutchins, M.A., 1872.

César Malan

1787 - 1864 Person Name: Henri A. César Malan Scripture: 1 Corinthians 6:20 Composer of "HENDON" in The Worshiping Church Malan, Henri Abraham César. The family of Malan traces its origin to the valleys of Piedmont. A branch of it settled at Mérindol, in Dauphiné, but was driven from France by the persecutions that followed the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Pierre Malan, after seeing his sister fall a victim to persecution, left Mérindol (1714), and arrived at Geneva (1722). Henri Abraham César Malan was born at Geneva in 1787. After an education at the College, he went to Marseilles, with the intention of learning business: but, soon after, entered the Academy at Geneva, as a preparation for the ministry, to which he was ordained in 1810. He had been appointed one of the masters at the College in the previous year. The National Church of Geneva was at that time almost Unitarian, and Malan's convictions were in accord with it. But the great movement known as the Réveil, of which the first products were the dissident church of Bourg de Four and at a later date that founded by Malan himself, and which finally imbued the whole Swiss Church with its spirit, was silently preparing itself. The germ of the movement may be traced in the Société des Amis (1810), of which Empeytaz and A. Bost were leaders; and in Malan's independent attainment to the doctrines of the Divinity of the Saviour and the free gifts of salvation through Him (1816). But the human agency, which gave it force, and determined its Calvinistic direction, was the visit of Robert Haldane (in the autumn of 1816), to whom not only these pioneers of the movement, but F. Monod, E. Rieu, Guers, Gonthier, Merle d'Aubigné, and others, always pointed as their spiritual father. Empeytaz and others sought to attain enfranchisement by the establishment of the "petite Eglise of Bourg de Four." Malan wished to reform the national Church from within: and a sermon at Geneva, which brought on him the obloquy of the professors and theologians that composed his audience, and which Haldane characterized as a republication of the Gospel, was his first overt act (Jan. 19, 1817). But the opposing forces were far too strong for him. The Venerable Company excluded him from the pulpits, and achieved his dismissal from his regentship at the College (1818). In 1820 he built a chapel (Chapelle du Temoignage) in his garden, and obtained the licence of the State for it, as a separatist place of worship. In 1823 he was formally deprived of his status as a minister of the national Church. The seven years that succeeded were the palmy days of the little chapel. Strangers, especially from England, mingled with the overflowing Swiss congregation. But (in 1830) a secession to Bourg de Four, and then the foundation of the Oratoire and the Société Evangelique, which in 1849 absorbed the congregation of Bourg de Four under the title of the Église Evangélique, thinned more and more the number of his adherents. His burning zeal for the conversion of souls found a larger outlet in long tours of evangelization, subsidized by religious friends, in his own land and Belgium and France, and also in Scotland and England, where he had friends among many religious bodies, and where he preached to large congregations. The distinguishing characteristic of these tours was his dealing with individuals. On the steamboat or the diligence, in the mountain walk, at the hotel, no opportunity was lost. On one occasion an old,man whom he visited drew from under his pillow a copy of his great hymnbook, Chants de Sion, 1841, and told him how he had prayed to see the author of it before he died. It is as the originator of the modern hymn movement in the French Reformed Church that Malan's fame cannot perish. The spirit of his hymns is perpetuated in the analysis of Christian experience, the never-wearied delineation of the hopes and fears, the joys and sorrows of the believer's soul, which are still the staple of French Protestant hymns. To this was added, in Malan himself, a marked didactic tone, necessitated by the great struggle of the Réveil for Evangelical doctrine; and an emphatic Calvinism, expressing itself with all the despondency of Newton and Cowper, but, in contrast with them, in bright assurance, peace and gladness. French criticism has pronounced his hymns unequal, and full of literary defects; but their unaffected freshness and fervent sincerity are universally allowed. In the Chants de Sion, hymns 20, ”Hosanna! Béni soit"; 165, “Mon coeur joyeux, plein d'espérance"; 199, "Du Rocher de Jacob"; 200, "Agneau de Dieu"; 239, "Trois fois Jehovah," are in every Protestant French hymnbook; and several others are very widely used. Besides his hymns Malan produced numberless tracts and pamphlets on the questions in dispute between the National and Evangelical Churches and the Church of Rome, as well as articles in the Record and in American reviews. He was a man of varied acquirements. His hymns were set to his own melodies. He was an artist, a mechanic: his little workshop had its forge, its carpenter's bench, its printing press. To the end of his life his strong Calvinism, and his dread of mere external union in church government, kept him distinct from all movements of church comprehension, though freely joining in communion with all the sections of Evangelical thought in Geneva and Scotland. At one time there seemed a prospect of his even rejoining the national Church, which had driven him from her. One of his greatest joys was the meeting of the Evangelical Alliance at Geneva (1861). He left no sect; one of his latest orders was the demolition of his decayed chapel, in which he had preached for 43 years. He died at Vandoeuvres, near Geneva, in 1864, leaving a numerous family, one of whom, the Rev. S. C. Malan, D.D., sometime Vicar of Broadwindsor, is well known as a linguist and a theologian of the English Church. To English readers Malan is chiefly known as a hymn-writer through translations of his "Non, ce n'est pas mourir" (q.v.): "It is not death to die", &c. About a dozen of his hymns appear in a translated form in the Friendly Visitor for 1826. [Rev. H. Leigh Bennett, M.A.] -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================= http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/César_Malan

William B. Bradbury

1816 - 1868 Scripture: 1 Corinthians 6:20 Composer of "BRADBURY" in The Worshiping Church The churchgoing people of today are generally familiar with the name Wm. B. Bradbury. Many have cherished that name from childhood. Most of us began our musical experiences by singing his songs, and as early experiences are the most lasting, we will carry these melodies, with their happy associations, through life. Mr. Bradbury, in his day, created a style of juvenile music, especially Sunday-school music, that swept the country. He set the pattern for his successors in Sunday-school song-making, and those who have harped on the key-note that he struck have been most successful. True, we have improved some in the way of hymns, and a smoother voicing of the parts, but there are still many Sunday-school song writers who regard Mr. Bradbury's writings as the ideal. William Batchelder Bradbury was born at York, York County, Maine, October 6, 1816. He came of a good family. He spent the first few years of his life on his father's farm, and rainy days would be spent in the shoe-shop, as was the general custom in those days. He loved music, and would spend his spare hours in studying and practicing such music as he could find. In 1830 his parents removed to Boston, where he saw and heard for the first time a piano and organ, as well as various other instruments. The effect was to lead him to devote his life to the service of music. Accordingly he took lessons upon the organ, and as early as 1831: had achieved some reputation as an organist. He attended Dr. Mason's singing classes, and later was admitted into his celebrated Bowdoin Street church choir, and the Doctor proved to be a valuable and steadfast friend. After some months he was asked to preside at the organ of a certain church at a salary of twenty-five dollars per annum. On trying the organ he found it to be one of those ancient affairs which required the keys to be pulled up as well as pressed down, and he suggested that his pay should be at least fifty dollars, since the playing required this double duty. It was not long till a better paying situation was offered him — that of one hundred dollars a year. At the age of twenty he was still singing in Dr. Mason's choir, when one evening at recess, the Doctor laid his hand on his shoulder, and said "William, I have an application for a teacher at Machias, Maine, to teach three large singing schools, besides private pupils, and I believe you are just the man for the place." He was overjoyed and delighted. He sent his terms, which were accepted, and achieved success. After a busy year and a half of work at Machias, he returned to Boston to marry his sweetheart, and then located at St. Johns, New Brunswick. Here the people did not take sufficient interest in his work, and he returned to Boston. Then came a call to take charge of the music of the First Baptist Church of Brooklyn. Dr. Mason gave him a letter of introduction. At the time of his taking charge of the organ at the Brooklyn church there was some opposition to the organ among the members, but he took pains to play it so well, and in such good taste, that he speedily won all to favor its use. After a year's work here the important era in his career began. He took charge of the choir and organ of the Baptist Tabernacle, New York City, and in addition started a singing class for the young. This first class was visited by many superintendents and others interested in Sunday-schools, who were uniformly delighted with what they saw and heard, and the originator of the movement soon found himself engaged in many similar schools in various parts of the city. These classes became very popular. In the Spring Street Church there was a class of over six hundred. From these schools sprang the celebrated "Juvenile Musical Festivals," as they were called, held at the Broadway Tabernacle, which, for some years, were such a prominent feature among the musical events of the city. Those annual concerts were occasions never to be forgotten by any who were present. The sight itself was a thrilling one. A thousand children were seated on a gradually rising platform, which spread the scene, as it were, most gracefully before the eye. About two-thirds of the class were girls, dressed uniformly in white with a white wreath and blue sash. The boys were dressed in jackets with collars turned over, something in the Byron style. When all were ready, a chord was struck on the piano — a thousand children instantly arose, presenting a sight that can be far more easily imagined than described. Of the musical effect produced by such a chorus we will not attempt to speak. Mr. Bradbury improved every occasion of these large gatherings to impress upon the public the necessity of musical instruction in the public schools, and in time he had the satisfaction of seeing music taught as a regular study in the public schools of New York. While he was teaching among the children, he would occasionally compose a song for them, and to their delight. So he decided to make a book. The Young Choir was the result. This was in 1841. Being an inexperienced writer, he got Dr. Hastings to correct his music. The book was a success, and others followed. Mr. Bradbury had a desire to go to Europe and study with some of the masters there, and on the second day of July, 1847, he took passage for England, accompanied by his wife and daughter. They were thirty days on the ocean. He remained in London some weeks, and made good use of his time while there. He made the acquaintance of Jenny Lind, then quite unknown to American fame. He arrived in Leipsic, Germany, September 11th, where he made arrangements to begin his studies without delay. Wenzel was his teacher for the piano and organ, Boehme for voice and Hauptmann for harmony. This city was the home of Mendelssohn, whose death occurred only a few weeks after Mr. Bradbury's arrival, and whose funeral he had the sad privilege of attending. It need scarcely be stated that Mr. Bradbury pursued his studies with the greatest assiduity. While thus zealously devoting himself to personal cultivation and improvement, Mr. Bradbury was in no danger of losing sight of the work at home for which he was preparing himself. He visited many public and private schools, and familiarized himself thoroughly with all the German methods of popular musical instruction. He also made the acquaintance of many prominent musicians. He made a short but very interesting tour across the Alps into Switzerland, After his return to New York, in 1849, he devoted his entire time to teaching, conducting conventions, composing, and editing music books. In 1851, in connection with his brother, E. Gr. Bradbury, he commenced the manufacture of the Bradbury pianos, which at one time were quite popular. Prof. Wm. B. Bradbury was one of the great trio (the other two being Drs. Mason and Root) to which the church and vocal music of this country owe much. Mr. Bradbury was an excellent composer. His melodies have an easy, natural flow, and his harmonies are simple and natural, and many of his hymn-tunes and gospel songs still in use are among the best that American writers have produced. He was unceasingly active, having edited fifty-nine books of sacred and secular music, a large part of which were his own work. Professor Bradbury was an excellent conductor and teacher. He was always kind, patient, and full of sympathy for others. Mr. Bradbury died at his residence, Montclair, N. J., January 8, 1868, leaving a widow, four daughters and a son. He will always occupy a prominent place in American musical history. --Hall, J. H. (c1914). Biographies of Gospel Song and Hymn Writers. New York: Fleming H. Revell Company.

Fanny Crosby

1820 - 1915 Person Name: Fanny J. Crosby Scripture: 1 Corinthians 6:20 Author of "More like Jesus would I be" in The Presbyterian Book of Praise Pseudonymns: A.V., Mrs. A. E. Andrews, Mrs. E. A. Andrews, Mrs. E. L. Andrews, James L. Black, Henrietta E. Blair, Charles Bruce, Robert Bruce, Leah Carlton, Eleanor Craddock, Lyman G. Cuyler, D.H.W., Ella Dare, Ellen Dare, Mrs. Ellen Douglass, Lizzie Edwards. Miss Grace Elliot, Grace J. Frances, Victoria Frances, Jennie Garnett, Frank Gould, H. D. K., Frances Hope, Annie L. James, Martha J. Lankton [Langton], Grace Lindsey, Maud Marion, Sallie Martin, Wilson Meade, Alice Monteith, Martha C. Oliver, Mrs. N. D. Plume, Kate Smiley, Sallie Smith, J. L. Sterling, John Sterling, Julia Sterling, Ida Scott Taylor, Mary R. Tilden, Mrs. J. B. Thresher, Hope Tryaway, Grace Tureman, Carrie M. Wilson, W.H.D. Frances Jane Crosby, the daughter of John and Mercy Crosby, was born in Southeast, Putnam County, N. Y., March 24, 1820. She became blind at the age of six weeks from maltreatment of her eyes during a spell of sickness. When she was eight years old she moved with her parents to Ridgefield, Conn., the family remaining there four years. At the age of fifteen she entered the New York Institution for the Blind, where she received a good education. She became a teacher in the institution in 1847, and continued her work until March 1, 1858. She taught English grammar, rhetoric and American history. This was the great developing period in her life. During the vacations of 1852 and 1853, spent at North Reading, Mass., she wrote the words to many songs for Dr. Geo. F. Root, then the teacher of music at the blind institution. Among them were, "Hazel Dell,", "The Honeysuckle Glen," "Rosalie, the Prairie Flower," "Music in the Air," "Proud World, Good-bye, I'm Going Home," "All Together", "Never Forget the Dear Ones," and others. Subsequently she wrote the words for the cantatas of The Flower Queen and The Pilgrim Fathers, all of which were very popular in their day, though it was not generally known at the time that she was the author. While teaching at the institution she met Presidents Van Buren and Tyler, Hon. Henry Clay, Governor Wm. H. Seward, General Winfield Scott, and other distinguished characters of American history. Concerning Mr. Clay, she gives the following: "When Mr. Clay came to the institution during his last visit to New York, I was selected to welcome him with a poem. Six months before he had lost a son at the battle of Monterey, and I had sent him some verses. In my address I carefully avoided any allusion to them, in order not to wound him. When I had finished he drew my arm in his, and, addressing the audience, said through his tears: 'This is not the first poem for which I am indebted to this lady. Six months ago she sent me some lines on the death of my dear son.' Both of us were overcome for a few moments. Soon, by a splendid effort, Mr. Clay recovered himself, but I could not control my tears." In connection with her meeting these notable men, we might add that Miss Fanny Crosby had the honor of being the first woman whose voice was heard publicly in the Senate Chamber at Washington. She read a poem there on one occasion. In addition to the thousands of hymns that she has written (about eight thousand poems in all), many of which have not been set to music, she has published four volumes of verses. The first was issued in 1844 and was entitled The Blind Girl, and Other Poems, a second volume, Monterey, and Other Poems, followed in 1849, and the third, A Wreath of Columbia's Flowers, in 1858. The fourth, Bells at Evening and Other Verses, with a biographical sketch by Rev. Robert Lowry, and a fine half-tone portrait, in 1897, the sales of which have reached a fourth edition. The book is published by The Biglow & Main Co., New York. Though these show the poetical bent of her mind, they have little to do with her world-wide fame. It is as a writer of Sunday-school songs and gospel hymns that she is known wherever the English language is spoken, and, in fact, wherever any other language is heard. Fanny was married March 5, 1858, to Alex. Van Alstyne, who was also a scholar in the same institution in which she was educated. She began to write Sunday-school hymns for Wm. B. Bradbury in 1864. Her first hymn, "We are going, we are going To a home beyond the skies", was written at the Ponton Hotel on Franklin Street, New York City, on February 5th of that year. This hymn was sung at Mr. Bradbury's funeral in January, 1868. Since 1864 she supported herself by writing hymns. She resided in New York City nearly all her life, where, she says, she is "a member of the Old John Street M. E. Church in good standing." She spent regular hours on certain days at the office of The Biglow & Main Co., the firm for which she did most of her writing, and for whom she has composed over four thousand hymns. Her hymns have been in great demand and have been used by many of our most popular composers, among whom may be mentioned Wm. B. Bradbury, Geo. F. Root, W. H. Doane, Rev. Robert Lowry, Ira D. Sankey, J. R. Sweney, W. J. Kirkpatrick, H. P. Main, H. P. Danks, Philip Phillips, B. G. Unseld, and others. She could compose at any time and did not need to wait for any special inspiration, and her best hymns have come on the spur of the moment. She always composed with an open book in her hand, generally a copy of Golden Hymns, held closely over her eyes, bottom side up. She learned to play on the guitar and piano while at the institution, and has a clear soprano voice. She also received a technical training in music, and for this reason she could, and did, compose airs for some of her hymns. One of these is, "Jesus, dear, I come to Thee, Thou hast said I may," both words and music of which are wonderfully sweet. "Safe in the arms of Jesus", probably one of her best known hymns, was her own favorite. Fanny loved her work, and was happy in it. She was always ready either to sympathize or join in a mirthful conversation, as the case may be. The secret of this contentment dates from her first composition at the age of eight years. "It has been the motto of my life," she says. It is: "O what a happy soul am I! Although I cannot see, I am resolved that in this world Contented I will be;" This has continued to be her philosophy. She says that had it not been for her affliction she might not have so good an education, nor so great an influence, and certainly not so fine a memory. She knows a great many portions of the Bible by heart, and had committed to memory the first four books of the Old Testament, and also the four Gospels before she was ten years of age. Her scope of subjects is wide, embracing everything from a contemplation of heaven, as in "The Bright Forever" and "The Blessed Homeland", to an appeal to the work of this world, as in "To the Work" and "Rescue the Perishing." The most of Fanny's published hymns have appeared under the name of Fanny J. Crosby or Mrs. Yan Alstyne, but quite a large number have appeared under the nom de plumes of Grace J. Frances, Mrs. C. M. Wilson, Lizzie Edwards, Ella Dale, Henrietta E. Blair, Rose Atherton, Maud Marion, Leah Carlton, nearly two hundred different names. -Biographies of Gospel Song and Hymn Writers (excerpts) ======================= Van Alstyne, Frances Jane, née Crosby, a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was born at South East, Putnam County, New York, March 24, 1823. When six weeks old she lost her sight. About 1835 she entered the New York City Institution for the Blind. On completing her training she became a teacher therein from 1847 to 1858. In 1858 she was married to Alexander Van Alstyne, a musician, who was also blind. Her first poem was published in 1831; and her first volumes of verse as A Blind Girl, and Other Poems, 1844; Monteresy, and Other Poems, 1849; and A Wreath of Columbia's Flowers, 1858. Her first hymn was "We are going, we are going" (Death and Burial), which was written for Mr. Bradbury and published in the Golden Censer, 1864. From 1853 to 1858 she wrote 20 songs, which were set to music by G. F. Root. Her songs and hymns number some 2,000 or more, and have been published mainly in several of the popular American Sunday school collections, and often under a nom de plume. About 60 have come into common use in Great Britain. The majority of these are taken from the following American collections:— i. From The Shining Star, 1864. 1. Softly on the breath of evening. Evening. ii. From Fresh Laurels, 1867. 2. Beautiful Mansions, home of the blest. Heaven. 3. Jesus the Water of Life has given. The Water of Life. 4. Light and Comfort of my soul. In Affliction. 5. There's a cry from Macedonia. Missions. 6. We are marching on with shield and banner bright. Sunday School Anniversary. iii. From Musical Leaves, 1868. 7. 0 what are you going to do, brother? Youth for God. iv. From Sabbath Carols, 1868. 8. Dark is the night, and cold the wind is blowing. Affliction anticipated. 9. Lord, at Thy mercy seat, Humbly I fall. Lent. v. From Silver Spray, 1868. 10. If I come to Jesus, He will make me glad. Peace in Jesus. 11. 'Twill not be long—our journey here. Heaven anticipated. vi. From Notes of Joy, 1869. 12. Little beams of rosy light. The Divine Father. 13. Press on! press on! a glorious throng. Pressing towards the Prize. vii. From Bright Jewels, 1869. 14. Christ the Lord is risen today, He is risen indeed. Easter. 15. Holy, holy, holy is the Lord! Sing 0 ye people, &c. Holiness of God. 16. Jesus, keep me near the Cross. Near the Cross of Christ. 17. Saviour, bless a little child. A Child's Prayer. Written Feb. 6, 1869. viii. From Songs of Devotion, 1870. 18. Pass me not, 0 gentle Saviour. Lent. Written in 1868. 19. Rescue the perishing, care for the dying. Home Missions. ix. From Pure Gold, 1871. 20. Great is Jehovah. King of kings. Greatness of God. 21. I would be Thy little lamb. The Good Shepherd. 22. Lead me to Jesus, lead me to Jesus. Desiring Jesus. 23. To the work, to the work, we are servants of God. Home Missions. 24. Why labour for treasures that rust and decay? The Fadeless Crown. x. From the Royal Diadem, 1873. 25. I am Jesus' little friend. For Infant Schools. 26. Jesus I love Thee. Loving Jesus. 27. Mourner, wheresoe'er thou art. To the Sorrowing and Penitent. Written Oct. 3, 1871. 28. Never be faint or weary. Joy in Jesus. 29. Only a step to Jesus. Invitation. xi. From Winnowed Hymns, 1873-4. 30. Loving Saviour, hear my cry. Lent. xii. From Echoes of Zion, 1874. 31. Say, where is thy refuge, my brother? Home Missions. xiii. From Songs of Grace and Glory, 1874. 32. Thou my everlasting Portion. Christ the Portion of His People. xiv. From Brightest and Best, 1875. 33. All the way my Saviour leads me. Jesus the Guide. 34. I am Thine, O Lord: I have heard Thy voice. Holiness desired. 35. O come to the Saviour, believe in His name. Invitation. Written, Sep. 7, 1874. 36. O how sweet when we mingle. Communion of Saints. Written in 1866. 37. O my Saviour, hear me. Prayer to Jesus for blessing and love. 38. Only Jesus feels and knows. Jesus the Divine Friend. 39. Revive Thy work, O Lord. Home Missions. 40. Saviour, more than life to me. Jesus All and in All. 41. To God be the glory, great things He hath done. Praise for Redemption. xv. From Calvary Songs, 1875. 42. Come, O come with thy broken heart. Invitation. xvi. From Gospel Music, 1876. 43. Here from the world we turn. Divine Worship. 44. When Jesus comes to reward His servants. Watching, xvii. From Welcome Tidings, 1877. 45. O hear my cry, be gracious now to me. For Pardon and Peace. xviii. From The Fountain of Song, 1877. 46. Lord, my trust I repose on Thee. Trusting in Jesus. xix. From Good as Gold, 1880. 47. In Thy cleft, O Rock of Ages. Safety in Jesus. 48. Sound the alarm ! let the watchman cry. Home Missions. 49. Tenderly He leads us. Christ the Leader. 50. 'Tis the blessed hour of prayer. The Hour of Prayer. In addition to these hymns, all of which are in common use in Great Britain (mainly through I. D. Sankey's Sacred Songs and Solos, the Methodist Sunday School Hymn Book, the Silver Street Sunday Scholars Companion, and other collections for Sunday schools), there are also "A blessing for you, will you take it?" (Pardon through Jesus); "My song shall be of Jesus" (Praise of Jesus); “Now, just a word for Jesus"(Home Missions); "Onward, upward, Christian soldier" (Pressing Heavenward); 44 Sinner, how thy heart is troubled" (Invitation); "'Tis a goodly, pleasant land" (Heaven anticipated); and "When the dewy light was fading" (Death anticipated). All of these are in I. D. Sankey's Sacred Songs & Solos. Mrs. Van Alstyne's most popular composition is "Safe in the arms of Jesus" (Safety in Jesus). This was written in 1868, at the request of Mr. W. H. Doane, to his well-known melody with which it is inseparably associated, and published in Bright Jewels, 1869. Mrs. Van Alstyne's hymns have sometimes been published anonymously; but the greater part are signed by a bewildering number of initials. The combined sales of the volumes of songs and hymns named above have amounted in English-speaking countries to millions of copies. Notwithstanding the immense circulation thus given to Mrs. Van Alstyne's hymns, they are, with few exceptions, very weak and poor, their simplicity and earnestness being their redeeming features. Their popularity is largely due to the melodies to which they are wedded. Since the above was in type we have found that the following are also in common use in Great Britain:— 51. Suppose the little cowslip. Value of Little Things. 52. Sweet hour of prayer. The Hour of Prayer. These are in Bradbury's Golden Chain, 1861. 53. Never lose the golden rule. Love to our Neighbours. In Bradbury's Golden Censer, 1864. 54. I will not be afraid at night. Trust in God. In Bradbury's Fresh Laurels, 1867. 55. Praise Him, praise Him, Jesus our, &c. Praise of Jesus. In Biglow & Main's Bright Jewels, 1869. 56. More like Jesus would I be. More like Jesus. In Perkins & Taylor's Songs of Salvation, 1870. 57. Behold me standing at the door. Christ at the Door. In Biglow & Main's Christian Songs, 1872. 58. If I come to Jesus. Jesus the Children's Guide. 59. Jesus, Lord, I come to Thee. Trust in Jesus. 60. Let me learn of Jesus. Jesus the Children's Friend. 61. Singing for Jesus, O singing for Jesus. Singing for Jesus. 62. There is a Name divinely sweet Holy Name of Jesus. Of these hymns Nos. 58-62 we have not been able to trace. --Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907 ================ Van Alstyne, Frances J., p. 1203, ii. From the American collections of recent date we find that Mrs. Van Alstyne is still actively engaged in hymn-writing. In the Funk and Wagnalls Company Gloria Deo, 1903, there are about 30 of her hymns, most of which are new. They are all signed, and some are dated, but we have not space to quote the first lines and subjects, as this hymnal is not an official collection of any denomination. Another name, "Mrs. S. K. Bourne" is credited in the same hymnal with about 40 new hymns. If this signature is not another pen-name of Mrs. Van Alstyne's (and these pen-names and initials of hers are very numerous), we can only say that she has a very successful understudy in "Mrs. S. K. Bourne." --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

Ralph Vaughan Williams

1872 - 1958 Person Name: R. Vaughan Williams Scripture: 1 Corinthians 6:14 Harmonizer of "ORIENTIS PARTIBUS" in Rejoice in the Lord

John Keble

1792 - 1866 Person Name: Keble Scripture: 1 Corinthians 6:19 Author of "Blest are the pure in heart" in The Voice of Praise Keble, John, M.A., was born at Fairford, in Gloucestershire, on St. Mark's Day, 1792. His father was Vicar of Coln St. Aldwin's, about three miles distant, but lived at Fairford in a house of his own, where he educated entirely his two sons, John and Thomas, up to the time of their entrance at Oxford. In 1806 John Keble won a Scholarship at Corpus Christi College, and in 1810 a Double First Class, a distinction which up to that time had been gained by no one except Sir Robert Peel. In 1811 he was elected a Fellow of Oriel, a very great honour, especially for a boy under 19 years of age; and in 1811 he won the University Prizes both for the English and Latin Essays. It is somewhat remarkable that amid this brilliantly successful career, one competition in which the future poet was unsuccessful was that for English verse, in which he was defeated by Mr. Rolleston. After his election at Oriel, he resided in College, and engaged in private tuition. At the close of 1813 he was appointed Examining Master in the Schools, and was an exceedingly popular and efficient examiner. On Trinity Sunday, 1815, he was ordained Deacon, and in 1816 Priest, by the Bishop of Oxford, and became Curate of East Leach and Burthorpe, though he still continued to reside at Oxford. In 1818 he was appointed College Tutor at Oriel, which office he retained until 1823. On the death of his mother in the same year, he left Oxford, and returned to live with his father and two surviving sisters at Fairford. In addition to East Leach and Burthorpe, he also accepted the Curacy of Southrop, and the two brothers, John and Thomas, undertook the duties between them, at the same time helping their father at Coln. It should be added, as an apology for Keble thus becoming a sort of pluralist among "the inferior clergy," that the population of all his little cures did not exceed 1000, nor the income £100 a year. In 1824 came the only offer of a dignity in the Church, and that a very humble one, which he ever received. The newly-appointed Bishop of Barbadoes (Coleridge) wished Keble to go out with him as Archdeacon, and but for his father's delicate state of health, he would probably have accepted the offer. In 1825 he became Curate of Hursley, on the recommendation of his old pupil, Sir William Heathcote; but in 1826, on the death of his sister, Mary Ann, he returned to Fairford, feeling that he ought not to separate himself from his father and only surviving sister. He supplied his father's place at Coln entirely. 1827 was memorable for the publication of The Christian Year, and 1828 for the election to the Provostship of Oriel, which his friends, rather than himself, seem to have been anxious to secure for him. In 1829 the living of Hursley was offered to him by Sir William Heathcote, but declined on the ground that he could not leave his father. In 1830 he published his admirable edition of Hooker's Works. In 1831 the Bishop of Exeter (Dr. Philpotts) offered him the valuable living of Paignton, but it was declined for the same reason that Hursley had been declined. In the same year he was also elected to the Poetry Professorship at Oxford. His Praelectiones in that capacity were much admired. In 1833 he preached his famous Assize Sermon at Oxford, which is said by Dr. Newman to have given the first start to the Oxford Movement. Very soon after the publication of this sermon the Tracts for the Times began to be issued. Of these Tracts Keble wrote Nos. 4, 13, 40, and 89. In 1835 his father died, and Keble and his sister retired from Fairford to Coln. In the same year he married Miss Clarke and the Vicarage of Hursley, again becoming vacant, was again offered to him by Sir W. Heathcote, and as the reason for his previous refusal of it no longer existed, he accepted the offer, and in 1836 settled at Hursley for the remainder of his life. That life was simply the life of a devoted and indefatigable parish priest, varied by intellectual pursuits. In 1864 his health began to give way, and on March 29, 1866, he passed away, his dearly loved wife only surviving him six weeks. Both are buried, side by side, in Hursley churchyard. In his country vicarage he was not idle with his pen. In 1839 he published his Metrical Version of the Psalms. The year before, he began to edit, in conjunction with Drs. Pusey and Newman, the Library of the Fathers. In 1846 he published the Lyra Innocentium, and in 1847 a volume of Academical and Occasional Sermons. His pen then seems to have rested for nearly ten years, when the agitation about the Divorce Bill called forth from him in 1851 an essay entitled, An Argument for not proceeding immediately to repeal the Laws which treat the Nuptial Bond as Indissoluble; and in the same year the decision of Archbishop Sumner in the Denison case elicited another essay, the full title of which is The Worship of Our Lord and Saviour in the Sacrament of the Holy Communion, but which is shortly entitled, Eucharistical Adoration. In 1863 he published his last work, The Life of Bishop Wilson (of Sodor and Man). This cost him more pains than anything he wrote, but it was essentially a labour of love. In the popular sense of the word "hymn," Keble can scarcely be called a hymnwriter at all. Very many of his verses have found their way into popular collections of Hymns for Public Worship, but these are mostly centos. Often they are violently detached from their context in a way which seriously damages their significance. Two glaring instances of this occur in the Morning and Evening hymns. In the former the verse "Only, O Lord, in Thy dear love, Fit us for perfect rest above," loses half its meaning when the preceding verse, ending "The secret this of rest below," is excised, as it generally is in collections for public worship, and the same may be said of that most familiar of all Keble's lines, "Sun of my soul, thou Saviour dear," which has of course especial reference to the preceding verse, "'Tis gone, that bright and orbed blaze," &c. The Lyra Innocentium has furnished but few verses which have been adopted into hymn collections; the Psalter has been more fortunate, but the translations from the Latin are almost unknown. Taking, however, the word "hymn" in the wider sense in which Dr. Johnson defines it, as "a song of adoration to some superior being," Keble stands in the very first rank of hymnwriters. His uneventful life was the very ideal life for such a poet as Keble was, but not the sort of life which would be best adapted to train a popular hymnwriter. The Christian Year and the Lyra Innocentium reflect in a remarkable degree the surroundings of the writer. They are essentially the works of a refined and cultured mind, and require a refined and cultured mind to enter into their spirit. Keble, all his life long, and never more than in the earlier portion of it, before he wrote, and when he was writing The Christian Year, breathed an atmosphere of culture and refinement. He had imbibed neither the good nor the evil which the training of a public or even of a private, school brings. It was not even the ordinary home education which he had received. He had been trained, up to the very time of his going to college, by his father, who was clearly a man of culture and refinement, and had been himself successively Scholar and Fellow of Corpus. When he went to Oxford, he can scarcely be said to have entered into the whirl of university life. The Corpus of those days has been admirably described by Keble's own biographer, Sir John Coleridge, and by Dean Stanley in his Life of Dr. Arnold; and the impression which the two vivid pictures leave upon the mind is that of a home circle, on rather a large scale, composed of about twenty youths, all more or less scholarly and refined, and some of them clearly destined to become men of mark. When he removed across the road to Oriel, he found himself in the midst of a still more distinguished band. Whether at home or at college he had never come into contact with anything rude or coarse. And his poetry is just what one would expect from such a career. Exquisitely delicate and refined thoughts, expressed in the most delicate and refined language, are characteristic of it all. Even the occasional roughnesses of versification may not be altogether unconnected with the absence of a public school education, when public schools laid excessive stress upon the form of composition, especially in verse. The Christian Year again bears traces of the life which the writer led, in a clerical atmosphere, just at the eve of a great Church Revival, "cujus pars magna fuit." “You know," he writes to a friend, “the C. Y. (as far as I remember it) everywhere supposes the Church to be in a state of decay." Still more obviously is this the case in regard to the Lyra Innocentium. It was being composed during the time when the writer was stricken by what he always seems to have regarded as the great sorrow of his life. Not the death of his nearest relations—-and he had several trials of this kind—-not the greatest of his own personal troubles dealt to him so severe a blow as the secession of J. H. Newman to the Church of Rome. The whole circumstances of the fierce controversy connected with the Tract movement troubled and unsettled him; and one can well understand with what a sense of relief he turned to write, not for, but about, little children, a most important distinction, which has too often been unnoticed. If the Lyra had been written for children it would have been an almost ludicrous failure, for the obscurity which has been frequently complained of in The Christian Year, is still more conspicuous in the latter work. The title is somewhat misleading, and has caused it to be regarded as a suitable gift-book for the young, who are quite incapable of appreciating it. For the Lyra is written in a deeper tone, and expresses the more matured convictions of the author; and though it is a far less successful achievement as a whole, it rises in places to a higher strain of poetry than The Christian Year does. Another marked feature of Keble's poetry is to a great extent traceable to his early life, viz. the wonderful accuracy and vividness of his descriptions of natural scenery. The ordinary schoolboy or undergraduate cares little for natural scenery. The country is to him a mere playing field. But Keble's training led him to love the country for its own sake. Hence, as Dean Stanley remarks, “Oxford, Bagley Wood, and the neighbourhood of Hursley might be traced through hundreds of lines, both in The Christian Year and the Lyra Innocentium.” The same writer testifies, with an authority which no other Englishman could claim, to "the exactness of the descriptions of Palestine, which he [Keble] had never visited.” And may not this remarkable fact be also traced to some extent to his early training? Brought up under the immediate supervision of a pious father, whom he venerated and loved dearly, he had been encouraged to study intelligently his Bible in a way in which a boy differently educated was not likely to do. Hence, as Sir John Coleridge remarks, "The Christian Year is so wonderfully scriptural. Keble's mind was, by long, patient and affectionate study of Scripture, so imbued with it that its language, its train of thought, its mode of reasoning, seems to flow out into his poetry, almost, one should think, unconsciously to himself." To this may we not add that the same intimate knowledge of the Bible had rendered the memory of the Holy Land so familiar to him that he was able to describe it as accurately as if he had seen it? One other early influence of Keble's life upon his poetry must be noticed. Circumstances brought him into contact with the "Lake poets." The near relation of one of the greatest of them had been his college friend, and John Coleridge introduced him to the writings not only of his uncle, S. T. Coleridge, but also of Wordsworth, to whom he dedicated his Praelectiones, and whose poetry and personal character he admired enthusiastically. To the same college friend he was indebted for an introduction to Southey, whom he found to be "a noble and delightful character," and there is no doubt that the writings of these three great men, but especially Wordsworth, had very much to do with the formation of Keble's own mind as a poet. It has been remarked that in Keble's later life his poetical genius seemed to have, to a great extent, forsaken him; and that the Miscellaneous Poems do not show many traces of the spirit which animated The Christian Year and the Lyra Innocentium. Perhaps one reason for this change may be found in the increased interest "which Keble took in public questions which were not conducive to the calm, introspective state of mind so necessary to the production of good poetry. The poet should live in a world of his own, not in a world perpetually wrangling about University Reform, about Courts of Final Appeal, about Marriage with Deceased Wife's Sister, and other like matters into which Keble, in his later years, threw himself—heart and soul. It is not needful to say much about Keble's other poetical works, The Psalter was not a success, and Keble did not expect it to be. It was undertaken," he tells us, "in the first instance with a serious apprehension, which has since grown into a full conviction, that the thing attempted is, strictly speaking, impossible." At the same time, if Keble did not achieve what he owned to be impossible, he produced a version which has the rare merit of never offending against good taste; one which in every line reflects the mind of the cultured and elegant scholar, who had been used to the work of translating from other languages into English. Hymnal compilers have hitherto strangely neglected this volume; but it is a volume worth the attention of the hymn compiler of the future. There is scarcely a verse in it which would do discredit to any hymnbook; while there are parts which would be an acquisition to any collection. His translations from the Latin have not commended themselves to hymnal compilers. Some of his detached hymns have been more popular. But it is after all as writer of The Christian Year that Keble has established his claim to be reckoned among the immortals. It would be hardly too much to say that what the Prayer Book is in prose, The Christian Year is in poetry. They never pall upon one; they realise Keble's own exquisite simile:— "As for some dear familiar strain Untired we ask, and ask again; Ever in its melodious store Finding a spell unheard before." And it would hardly be too bold to prophesy that The Christian Year will live as long as the Prayer Book, whose spirit Keble had so thoroughly imbibed, and whose "soothing influence" it was his especial object to illustrate and commend. [Rev. John H. 0verton, D.D.] Keble's hymns, poetical pieces, and translations appeared in the following works :— (1.) The Christian Year: Thoughts in Verse for the Sundays and Holy days Throughout the Year. Oxford: John Henry Parker, 1827. Preface dated "May 30th, 1827." The last poem, that on the “Commination," is dated March 9, 1827. The poems on the "Forms of Prayer to be used at Sea," "Gunpowder Treason," "King Charles the Martyr," "The Restoration of the Royal Family," "The Accession," and "Ordination," were added to the 4th edition, 1828. The Messrs. Parker have pub. a large number of editions to date, including a facsimile reprint of the first edition, and an edition with the addition of the dates of composition of each poem. A facsimile of Keble's manuscript as it existed in 1822 was also lithographed in 1882, by Eliot Stock, but its publication was suppressed by a legal injunction, and only a few copies came into the hands of the public. Since the expiration of the first copyright other publishers have issued the work in various forms. (2.) Contributions to the British Magazine, which were included in Lyra Apostolica, 1836, with the signature of "γ." (3.) The Psalter or Psalms of David; In English Verse; By a Member of the University of Oxford. Adapted for the most part, to Tunes in Common Use; and dedicated by permission to the Lord Bishop of Oxford. . . . Oxford, John Henry Parker: J. G. & F. Rivington, London, MDCCCXXXIX. Preface dated “Oxford, May 29, 1839." (4.) The Child's Christian Year: Hymns for every Sunday and Holy-Day. Compiled for the use of Parochial Schools. Oxford: John Henry Parker, 1841. This was compiled by Mrs. Yonge. Keble wrote the Preface, dated “Hursley, Nov. 6, 1841," and signed it “J. K." To it he contributed the four poems noted below. (5.) Lyra Innocentium: Thoughts in Verse on Christian Children, their Ways and their Privileges . . . Oxford: John Henry Parker : F. & J. Rivington, London, 1846. The Metrical Address (in place of Preface) “To all Friendly Readers," is dated "Feb. 8, 1846." (6.) Lays of the Sanctuary, and otter Poems. Compiled and Edited by G. Stevenson de M. Rutherford... London: Hamilton, Adams & Co., 1859. This was a volume of poems published on behalf of Mrs. Elizabeth Good. To it Keble contributed the three pieces noted below. (7.) The Salisbury Hymn-Book 1857. Edited by Earl Nelson. To this be contributed a few hymns, some translations from the Latin, and some rewritten forms of well-known hymns, as "Guide me, 0 Thou great Jehovah," &c. (8.) Miscellaneous Poems by the. Rev. J. Keble, M.A., Vicar of Hursley. Oxford and London: Parker & Co., 1869. The excellent Preface to this posthumous work is dated "Chester, Feb. 22, 1869," and is signed "G.M," i.e. by George Moberly, late Bishop of Salisbury. This volume contains Keble's Ode written for the Installation of the Duke of Wellington as Chancellor of the University of Oxford, in 1834, his poems from the Lyra Apostolica, his hymns named above, his translations from the Latin, and other pieces not published in his works. The most important centos from The Christian Year, which are in common use as hymns, and also the hymns contributed to the Salisbury Hymn Book, 1857, are annotated in full under the first lines of the original poems. The translations from the Latin and Greek are given under the first lines of the originals. There are also several of his more important pieces noted in the body of this work. Those that …have no special history, are the following (the dates given being those of the composition of each piece):— i. From The Christian Year, 1827 and 1828. 1. Creator, Saviour, strengthening Guide. Trinity Sunday. (March 3, 1826.) 2. Father, what treasures of sweet thought. Churching of Women. (March 13, 1827.) 3. God is not in the earthquake: but behold. 9th Sunday after Trinity. The still mall voice. (Aug. 13,1822.) 4. In troublous days of anguish and rebuke. 9th S. after Trinity. The still small voice. (Aug. 13, 1822.) 5. Lessons sweet of spring returning. 1st Sunday after Epiphany. Spring. (May 17,1824.) 6. My Saviour, can it ever be? 4th Sunday after Easter. The promised Comforter. 7. 0 Father of long suffering grace. 18th Sunday after Trinity. God's longsuffering. (Oct. 6, 1823.) 8. 0 God of mercy, God of might, How should, &c. Holy Communion. (Jan. 31, 1827.) 9. 0 Lord my God, do Thou Thy holy will. Wednesday before Easter. Resignation. (Aug. 13, 1821.) 10. 0 say not, dream [think] not, heavenly notes. Catechism. (Feb. 16, 1827.) 11. 0 shame upon thee, listless heart. SS. Philip & James. (Aug. 3, 1825.) 12. 0 who shall dare in this frail scene? St. Mark's Day. (1820.) 13. Red o'er the forest peers the setting sun. 23rd Sunday after Trinity. The Resurrection of the body. (Nov. 12, 1825.) 14. Spirit of Christ, Thine earnest give. Ordination. (March 28, 1828.) 15. Spirit of light and truth, to Thee. Ordination. (March 28, 1828.) 16. Spirit of might and sweetness too. Confirmation. (Feb. 21, 1827.) 17. Sweet nurslings of the vernal skies. 15th S. after Trinity. Consider the lilies. Live for today. (Feb. 3, 1826) 18. The days of hope and prayer are past. 4th Sunday after Easter. The promised Comforter. 19. The live-long night we've toiled in vain. 5th Sunday after Trinity. Miracle of the Fishes. (1821.) 20. The midday sun with fiercest glare. Conversion of St. Paul. (Mar. 2,1822.) 21. The shadow of the Almighty's cloud. Confirmation. (Feb. 22, 1827.) 22. The silent joy that sinks so deep. 2nd Sunday after Epiphany. Turning Water into Wine. 23. Then, fainting soul, arise and sing. 4th Sunday after Easter. The promised Comforter. 24. When brothers part for manhood's race. St. Andrew's Day. (Jan. 27, 1822.) 25. Who is God’s chosen priest ? St. Matthias's Day. 26. Why doth my Saviour weep? 10th Sunday after Trinity. Christ weeping over Jerusalem. (1819.) 27. Why should we faint and fear to live alone? 24th Sunday after Trinity. God's goodness in veiling the future. (June 7, 1825.) 28. Wish not, dear friends, my pain away. 16th Sunday after Trinity. Resignation. (1824.) ii. From The Psalter, 1839. 29. From deeps so wild and drear. Ps. cxxx. 30. God our Hope and Strength abiding. Ps. xlvi. 31. How pleasant, Lord of hosts, how dear. Ps. lxxxiv. 32. Lord, be my Judge, for I have trod. Ps. xxvi. 33. Lord, Thy heart in love hath yearned. Ps. lxxxv. 34. Lord, Thou hast search'd me out and known. Ps. cxxxix 35. My God, my God, why hast Thou me? Ps. xxii. 36. My Shepherd is the living God. Ps. xxiii. 37. My Shepherd is the Lord; J know. Ps. xxiii. 38. Praise the Lord, for He is love. Ps. cxxxvi. 39. Praise ye the Lord from heaven. Ps.cxlviii. 40. Sing the song unheard before. Ps. xcvi. 41. Sound high Jehovah's Name. Ps. cxxxv. 42. The earth is all the Lord's, with all. Ps. xxiv. 43. The mercies of the Lord my God. Ps. lxxxix. 44. The seed of Jacob, one and all. Ps. xxii. iii. From The Child's Christian Year, 1841, and later editions. 45. Bethlehem, above all cities blest. Innocents’ Day. 46. Lo, from the Eastern hills the Lord. l0th Sunday after Trinity. The Gospel. (Late editions.) 47. Our God in glory sits on high. 1st Sunday after Easter. The Epistle. 48. When Christ to village comes or town. 16th Sunday after Trinity. The Gospel. (Late editions.) iv. From Lyra Innocentium, 1846. 49. Christ before thy door is waiting. Presence of Christ in His poor; or, Offertory. 50. How [When] the new-born saints, assembling. Offertory. 51. Once in His Name Who made thee. Holy Baptism. 52. Who for the like of me will care? Naamans' Servant-maid v. From Lays of the Sanctuary, 1859. 53. Lord, lift my heart to Thee at morn. Emigrant's Midnight Hymn. 54. O Love unseen, we know Thee nigh. Cento from No. 53. 55. Slowly the gleaming stars retire. Morning Hymn for Emigrants at Sea. 56. The twilight hour is sweet at home. Evening hymn for Emigrants at Sea. The editor of Keble's Miscellaneous Poems says concerning Nos. 53, 55, and 56:— "The three hymns for Emigrants, for use at Midnight, Morning, and Evening, were written at the request of his friend Sir Frederic Rogers, at that time Emigration Commissioner. They were printed in the first edition of the ‘Prayers for Emigrants, which he had compiled, but were subsequently omitted, perhaps as being thought not sufficiently simple for the class of people for whose use the Book of Prayers was chiefly intended." Preface, p. vi. It is found that nearly 100 hymns (counting centos as such) by Keble are in common use at the present time, and of these some rank with the finest and most popular in the English language. -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

N. F. S. Grundtvig

1783 - 1872 Person Name: Nikolai F. S. Grundtvig Scripture: 1 Corinthians 6:19 Author of "Built on the Rock" in Psalter Hymnal (Gray) Nicolai Frederik Severin Grundtvig was the son of a pastor, and was born at Udby, in Seeland, in 1783. He studied in the University of Copenhagen from 1800-1805; and, like some other eminent men, did not greatly distinguish himself; his mind was too active and his imagination too versatile to bear the restraint of the academic course. After leaving the university he took to teaching; first in Langeland, then (1808) in Copenhagen. Here he devoted his attention to poetry, literature, and Northern antiquities. In 1810 he became assistant to his father in a parish in Jutland. The sermon he preached at his ordination, on the subject "Why has the Lord's word disappeared from His house," attracted much attention, which is rarely the case with "probationers'" sermons. On his father's death, in 1813, he returned to Copenhagen, and for eight years devoted himself mainly to literature. The poetry, both secular and religious, that he produced, drew from a friend the remark that "Kingo's harp had been strung afresh." In 1821 King Frederik vi. appointed him pastor of Prasloe, a parish in Seeland, from which he was the next year removed to Copenhagen, and made chaplain of St. Saviour's church in Christianshavn. From the time of his ordination he had been deeply impressed with Evangelical church sentiments, in opposition to the fashionable Rationalism and Erastianism of the day; and adhered to the anti-rationalist teaching of Hauge, whose death at this time (1824) seemed to be a call to Grundtvig to lift up his voice. An opportunity soon presented itself; Professor Clausen brought out a book entitled Katholicismens og Protestantismens Forfatning, Ldre, og Ritus ("The condition, teaching, and ritual of Catholicism and Protestantism"). This book was replete with the Erastian Rationalism which was so especially distasteful to Grundtvig, who forthwith, in his Kirkens Gjenmsele ("The Church's Reply," 1825), strongly opposed its teaching, and laid down truer principles of Christian belief, and sounder views of the nature of the Church. This caused a sensation: Grandtvig (who had not spared his opponent) was fined 100 rixdollars, and the songs and hymns which he had written for the coming celebration of the tenth centenary of Northern Christianity were forbidden to be used. On this he resigned his post at St. Saviour's, or rather was forced to quit it by a sentence of suspension which was pronounced in 1826, and under which he was kept for 13 years. He took the opportunity of visiting England in 1829, 30, and 31, and consulting its libraries, mainly with a view to a further insight into Northern antiquities, and to help his studies in the early English tongue. His edition of Cynewulfs beautiful poem of the Phenix from the Codex Exoniensis, the Anglo-Saxon (so-called) text, with a preface in Danish, and a fri Fordanskning (free rendering in Danish), published in 1840*, is a result of this journey and enforced leisure. Tired of his long silence, his numerous friends and admirers proposed to erect a church for him, and form themselves into an independent congregation, but this was not permitted. He was allowed, however, to hold an afternoon service in the German church at Christianshavn. There ho preached for eight years, and compiled and wrote his hymn-book, Sang-Vdrk til den Danske Kirkce ("Song-work for the Danish Church"). He still worked on towards his object of raising the Christian body to which ho belonged from the condition of a mere slate establishment to the dignity of a gospel-teaching national church. In 1839 (the year of the death of King Frederik vr., and the accession of his cousin Chrisliem vni.) the suspension was removed, and he was appointed chaplain of the hospital Vartou, a position which he held till his death. In 1863 the king (Frederik vn.) conferred on him the honorary title of bishop. The good old man died suddenly, in his 89th year, on Sept. 2, 1872, having officiated the day before. As Kingo is the poet of Easter, and Brorson of Christmas, so Grundtvig is spoken of as the poet of Whitsuntide. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology,, p. 1001 (1907)

Carl Døving

1867 - 1937 Person Name: Carl Döving Scripture: 1 Corinthians 6:19 Translator of "Built on the Rock" in Psalter Hymnal (Gray) Born: March 21, 1867, Nord­dal­en, Nor­way. Died: Oc­to­ber 2, 1937, Chi­ca­go, Il­li­nois. Buried: De­cor­ah, Io­wa.

Ludvig Mathias Lindeman

1812 - 1887 Person Name: Ludwig M. Lindeman Scripture: 1 Corinthians 6:19 Composer of "KIRKEN" in Psalter Hymnal (Gray)

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