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Martin Luther

1483 - 1546 Hymnal Number: d17 Author of "Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir" in Deutsches Christliches Gesangbuch der Amischen Christlichen Kirche Luther, Martin, born at Eisleben, Nov. 10, 1483; entered the University of Erfurt, 1501 (B.A. 1502, M.A.. 1503); became an Augustinian monk, 1505; ordained priest, 1507; appointed Professor at the University of Wittenberg, 1508, and in 1512 D.D.; published his 95 Theses, 1517; and burnt the Papal Bull which had condemned them, 1520; attended the Diet of Worms, 1521; translated the Bible into German, 1521-34; and died at Eisleben, Feb. 18, 1546. The details of his life and of his work as a reformer are accessible to English readers in a great variety of forms. Luther had a huge influence on German hymnody. i. Hymn Books. 1. Ellich cristlich lider Lobgesang un Psalm. Wittenberg, 1524. [Hamburg Library.] This contains 8 German hymns, of which 4 are by Luther. 2. Eyn Enchiridion oder Handbuchlein. Erfurt, 1524 [Goslar Library], with 25 German hymns, of which 18 are by Luther. 3. Geystliche Gesangk Buchleyn. Wittenberg, 1524 [Munich Library], with 32 German hymns, of which 24 are by Luther. 4. Geistliche Lieder auffs new gebessert. Wittenberg. J. Klug, 1529. No copy of this book is now known, but there was one in 1788 in the possession of G. E. Waldau, pastor at Nürnberg, and from his description it is evident that the first part of the Rostock Gesang-Buch, 1531, is a reprint of it. The Rostock Gesang-Buch, 1531, was reprinted by C. M. Wiechmann-Kadow at Schwerin in 1858. The 1529 evidently contained 50 German hymns, of which 29 (including the Litany) were by Luther. 5. Geistliche Lieder auffs new gebessert. Erfurt. A. Rauscher, 1531 [Helmstädt, now Wolfenbüttel Library], a reprint of No. 4. 6. Geistliche Lieder. Wittenberg. J. Klug, 1535 [Munich Library. Titlepage lost], with 52 German hymns, of which 29 are by Luther. 7. Geistliche Lieder auffs new gebessert. Leipzig. V. Schumann, 1539 [Wernigerode Library], with 68 German hymns, of which 29 are by Luther. 8. Geistliche Lieder. Wittenberg. J. Klug, 1543 [Hamburg Library], with 61 German hymns, of which 35 are by Luther. 9. Geystliche Lieder. Leipzig. V. Babst, 1545 [Gottingen Library]. This contains Luther's finally revised text, but adds no new hymns by himself. In pt. i. are 61 German hymns, in pt. ii. 40, of which 35 in all are by Luther. For these books Luther wrote three prefaces, first published respectively in Nos. 3, 4, 9. A fourth is found in his Christliche Geseng, Lateinisch und Deudsch, zum Begrebnis, Wittenberg, J. Klug, 1542. These four prefaces are reprinted in Wackernagel’s Bibliographie, 1855, pp. 543-583, and in the various editions of Luther's Hymns. Among modern editions of Luther's Geistliche Lieder may be mentioned the following:— Carl von Winterfeld, 1840; Dr. C. E. P. Wackernagel, 1848; Q. C. H. Stip, 1854; Wilhelm Schircks, 1854; Dr. Danneil, 1883; Dr. Karl Gerok, 1883; Dr. A. F. W. Fischer, 1883; A. Frommel, 1883; Karl Goedeke, 1883, &c. In The Hymns of Martin Luther. Set to their original melodies. With an English version. New York, 1883, ed. by Dr. Leonard Woolsey Bacon and Nathan H. Allen, there are the four prefaces, and English versions of all Luther's hymns, principally taken more or less altered, from the versions by A. T. Russell, R. Massie and Miss Winkworth [repub. in London, 1884]. Complete translations of Luther's hymns have been published by Dr. John Anderson, 1846 (2nd ed. 1847), Dr. John Hunt, 1853, Richard Massie, 1854, and Dr. G. Macdonald in the Sunday Magazine, 1867, and his Exotics, 1876. The other versions are given in detail in the notes on the individual hymns. ii. Classified List of Luther's Hymns. Of Luther's hymns no classification can be quite perfect, e.g. No. 3 (see below) takes hardly anything from the Latin, and No. 18 hardly anything from the Psalm. No. 29 is partly based on earlier hymns (see p. 225, i.). No. 30 is partly based on St. Mark i. 9-11, and xvi., 15, 16 (see p. 226, ii.). No. 35 is partly based on St. Luke ii. 10-16. The following arrangement, however, will answer all practical purposes. A. Translations from the Latin. i. From Latin Hymns: 1. Christum wir sollen loben schon. A solis ortus cardine 2. Der du bist drei in Einigkeit. O Lux beata Trinitas. 3. Jesus Christus unser Heiland, Der von. Jesus Christus nostra salus 4. Komm Gott Schopfer, heiliger Geist. Veni Creator Spiritus, Mentes. 5. Nun komm der Beidenheiland. Veni Redemptor gentium 6. Was flirchst du Feind Herodes sehr. A solis ortus cardine ii. From Latin Antiphons, &c.: 7. Herr Gott dich loben wir. Te Deum laudamus. 8. Verleih uns Frieden gnädiglich. Dapacem, Domine 9. Wir glauben all an einen Gott. iii. Partly from the Latin, the translated stanzas being adopted from Pre-Reformation Versions: 10. Komm, heiliger Geist, Herre Gott. 11. Mitten wir im Leben sind. Media vita in morte sumus. B. Hymns revised and enlarged from Pre-Reformation popular hymns. 12. Gelobet seist du Jesus Christ. 13. Gott der Vater wohn uns bei. 14. Gott sei gelobet und gebenedeiet. 15. Nun bitten wir den heiligen Geist. C. Psalm versions. 16. Ach Gott vom Himmel, sieh darein. 17. Aus tiefer Noth schrei ich zu dir. 18. Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott. 19. Es spricht der Unweisen Mund wohl. 20. Es wollt uns Gott genädig sein. 21. War Gott nicht mit uns diese Zeit. 22. Wohl dem, der in Gotten Furcht steht. D. Paraphrases of other portions of Holy Scripture. 23. Diess sind die heilgen zehn Gebot. 24. Jesaia dem Propheten das geschah. 25. Mensch willt du leben seliglich. 26. Mit Fried und Freud ich fahr dahin. 27. Sie ist mir lieb die werthe Magd. 28. Vater unser im Himmelreich. E. Hymns mainly Original. 29. Christ lag in Todesbanden. 30. Christ unser Herr zum Jordan kam. 31. Ein neues Lied wir heben an. 32. Erhalt uns Herr bei deinem Wort. 33. Jesus Christus unser Heiland, Der den, 34. Nun freut euch lieben Christengemein. 35. Vom Himmel hoch da komm ich her. 36. Vom Himmel kam der Engel Schaar. In addition to these — 37. Fur alien Freuden auf Erden. 38. Kyrie eleison. In the Blätter fur Hymnologie, 1883, Dr. Daniel arranges Luther's hymns according to what he thinks their adaptation to modern German common use as follows:— i. Hymns which ought to be included in every good Evangelical hymn-book: Nos. 7-18, 20, 22, 28, 29, 30, 32, 34, 35, 36, 38. ii. Hymns the reception of which into a hymn-book might be contested: Nos. 2, 3, 4, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 33. iii. Hymns not suited for a hymn-book: Nos. 1, 5, 6, 27, 31, 37. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Nicolaus Ludwig, Graf von Zinzendorf

1700 - 1760 Person Name: Nicholas Ludwig von Zinzendorf Hymnal Number: d24 Author of "Christi Blut und Gerechtigkeit, Das ist mein Schmuck" in Deutsches Christliches Gesangbuch der Amischen Christlichen Kirche Zinzendorf, Count Nicolaus Ludwig, the founder of the religious community of Herrnhut and the apostle of the United Brethren, was born at Dresden May 26, 1700. It is not often that noble blood and worldly wealth are allied with true piety and missionary zeal. Such, however, was the case with Count Zinzendorf. Spener, the father of Pietism, was his godfather; and Franke, the founder of the famous Orphan House, in Halle, was for several years his tutor. In 1731 Zinzendorf resigned all public duties and devoted himself to missionary work. He traveled extensively on the Continent, in Great Britain, and in America, preaching "Christ, and him crucified," and organizing societies of Moravian brethren. John Wesley is said to have been under obligation to Zinzendorf for some ideas on singing, organization of classes, and Church government. Zinzendorf was the author of some two thousand hymns. Many of them are of little worth, but a few are very valuable, full of gospel sweetness and holy fervor. He died at Herrnhut May 6, 1760. —Hymn Writers of the Church by Charles Nutter ================ Zinzendorf, Nicolaus Ludwig, Count von, was born at Dresden, May 26, 1700; was educated at the Paedagogium at Halle (1710-1716), and at the University of Wittenberg (1716-1719); became Hof-und Justizrath at the Saxon court at Dresden in the autumn of 1721; received a license to preach from the Theological Faculty of the University of Tubingen in 1734; was consecrated Bishop of the Moravian Brethren's Unity at Berlin, May 10, 1737; and died at Herrnhut, May 9, 1760. An adequate sketch of the life and labours of this remarkable man would far exceed the limits of our space. The details of his life are fully given in his Leben, by A. G. Spangenberg, 8 vols., Barby, 1772-75 (English version, abridged, by Samuel Jackson, London, 1838); and good sketches, with references to the fuller biographies, will be found in Koch, v. 248, Herzog's Real-Encyklopädie, xvii. 513, &c. The English reader may also consult T. Kübler's Historical Notes to the Lyra Germanica, 1865, p. 107; Josiah Miller's Singers and Songs, 1869, p. 160; Miss Winkworth's Christian Singers of Germany, 1869, p. 305, &c. It is impossible to speak of Zinzendorf apart from the religious Communion of which he was the Second Founder. Zinzendorf's first hymn was written at Halle in 1712, and his last at Herrnhut, May 4, 1760. Between these dates he wrote more than 2000 hymns. He himself published an edition of his poems as his Teutsche Gedichte at Herrnhut, 1735 (2nd ed., Barby, 1766), but this only contains 128 hymns. The fullest representation of them is in Albert Knapp's Geistliche Gedichte des Graf en von Zinzendorf, published at Stuttgart in 1845 (hereafter, in this article, referred to as Knapp, 1845). This contains 770 pieces, arranged in three books, with an introduction and a biographical sketch by Knapp. In preparing this edition Knapp had access to much unpublished material in the archives at Herrnhut, and found there many of the hymns in Zinzendorf's autograph. But too much of the labour he bestowed thereon was spent in endeavouring, not so much to reconstruct the text from the original sources, as to modernise it. In various instances the hymns are altogether rewritten, so that the form in which they appear is not that in which, as a matter of fact, Zinzendorf did write them, but that in which he might have written them had he been Albert Knapp, and lived in the year of grace 1845. So much is this the case, that comparatively few of the hymns are given in Knapp's edition in their original form. If not altered they are often either abridged or else combined with others. The keynote of Zinzendorf's hymns, and of his religious character, was a deep and earnest personal devotion to and fellowship with the crucified Saviour. This is seen even in his worst pieces, where it is his perverted fervour that leads him into objectionable familiarity with sacred things both in thought and in expression. If his self-restraint had been equal to his imaginative and productive powers, he would have ranked as one of the greatest German hymnwriters. As it is, most even of his best pieces err in some way or other, for if they are reverent and in good taste, they are apt to lack concentration and to be far too diffuse. His best hymns, and those which have been most popular in German and English beyond the Moravian connection, are those of the period prior to 1734. Among the characteristically Moravian hymns of the period 1734 to 1742 there are also, various noble pieces. The later productions, especially from 1743 to 1750, are as a rule one-sided, unreal, and exaggerated in sentiment, and debased in style; exemplifying a tendency inherited from Scheffler, and suffered to run to riot. Without doubt he wrote too much (especially considering the limited range of subjects treated of in his hymns), and gave too little care to revision and condensation. Yet many of his hymns are worthy of note, and are distinguished by a certain noble simplicity, true sweetness, lyric grace, unshaken faith in the reconciling grace of Christ, entire self-consecration, willingness to spend and be spent in the Master's service, and fervent brotherly love. The more important hymnbooks in which Zinzendorf’s productions mainly appeared may for convenience be briefly noted here, as follows:— (1) Sammlung geistlicher und lieblicher Lieder, Leipzig, 1725, with 889 hymns. The 2nd edition was published circa 1728, and contains anAnhäng with Nos. 890-1078 [Berlin Library, Ei. 2017]; while some copies have a Zugabe with Nos. 1079-1149 [Berlin, Ei. 2016], and others have also an Andere Zugabe, circa 1730, with hymns 1-44, bound up with them [Berlin, Ei, 2014, and British Museum]. The 3rd edition, with 1416 hymns in all, was published at Görlitz in 1731. A copy of this, now in the Hamburg Library, has bound up with Nachlese einiger geistlicher Lieder, dated 1733. (2) Herrnhut Gesang-Buch 1735 (Das Gesang-Buch der Gemeine in Herrn-Huth) with its various Anhange and Zugaben up to 1748. (3) London Gesang-Buch 1753-54 (Etwas vom Liede Mosis ... das ist: Alt- und neuer Brüder-Gesang, &c), published at London, vol. i. 1753, ii. 1754. (4) Brüder Gesang-Buch 1778 (Gesangbuch zum Gebrauch der evangelischen Brüdergemeinen), published at Barby in 1778. Zinzendorf's hymns passed into German non-Moravian use mainly through the Ebersdorf Gesang-Buch, 1742 (Evangelisches Gesangbuch in einen hinlänglichen Auszug der Alten, Neuern und Neuesten Lieder, &c), and in recent times through Knapp's Evangelischer Lieder-Schatz, 1837-1865. Comparatively few are found in non-Moravian English hymnbooks prior to 1840, save in the versions made by John Wesley. The translations made by the English Moravians have been very little used by others, except by those who were connected by birth with the Moravians, such as James Montgomery (through whose influence several were included in Mercer's Church Psalter & Hymn Book, 1855 and 1857), J. A. Latrobe and C. H. Bateman. The versions made by English non-Moravians since 1840 have been mostly of hymns which the Moravians themselves had not thought good to translate. In the larger edition of the English Moravian Hymn Book of 1886, hymns which are by Zinzendorf may easily be traced, his name being added to them, and the first line of the original German prefixed. The others which have passed into use outside the Moravian connection, or have been translated by non-Moravians, are here noted as follows:— i. Ach Bein von meinen Beinen. Longing for Heaven. Written circa 1750 (Knapp, 1845, p. 176). Included in the Kleine Brüder Gesang-Buch, 2nd ed. Barby, 1761, No. 2110, in 2 stanzas of 8 lines; repeated, altered, in the Brüder Gesang-Buch,1778. No. 1681. Translated as:— 1. The seasons, Lord! are Thine—how soon. A free version as No. 479 in J. A. Latrobe's Psalms & Hymns, 1841. 2. How soon, exalted Jesus. This is No. 838 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789 (1886, No. 1233). ii. Ach! mein verwundter Fürste. Union with Christ. Written Aug. 1737 (Knapp, 1845, p. 125). First published in Appendix viii., circa 1738, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1197, and in 4 stanzas of 6 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 774, stanza iv. was omitted. The translation in common use is of stanzas i., ii. Another translation is, "My wounded Prince enthron'd on high," by C. Kinchen, as No. 85 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1742. In the 1808 and later editions(1886, No. 352), stanza iii. altered to "Lord, take my sinful, worthless heart "is continued. iii. Der Gott von unserm Bunde. Supplication. Written in 1737 ( Knap , 1845, p. 231). First published in Appendix vii., circa 1738, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1201, in 5 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled, "Hymn for the Hours of Prayer." In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1474. The translation in common use is based on stanza i., ii. Other translations are (1) "The God to whom we homage pay." This is No. 97 in pt. iii. 1748 of the Moravian Hymn Book. (2) "O may the God of mercies." This is No. 592 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801. In the ed. of 1886, No. 706, it begins with stanza iii., "Lord, our High Priest and Saviour." iv. Die Bäume blühen ab. Autumn . In the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, No. 12, dated Autumn, 1721, and entitled "Comforting thoughts on Death." It is in Knapp, 1845, p. 17. Further noted under "Wie wird mir einst doch sein". v. Du Vater aller Kreatur. Work for Christ. Written 1722 (Knapp, 1845, p. 26). First published in Appendix. vi., circa 1737, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1159, and in 13 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1717 consists of stanza viii.-xiii. beginning, "Des Lebens abgestecktes Ziel." Translated as:— Whether the period of this life. This is a translation of stanza viii.-x. as No. 847 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789. To this in later eds. (1886, No. 1235) No. 848 was added. This is "Lord may 1 live to Thee by faith," and is a translation of an anonymous 17th century stanza, "Herr Jesu! dir leb ich," which is No. 1686 in the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778. The full form is in J. A. Latrobe's Psalms & Hymns, 1841. vi. Geschwister! wir geben uns Herzen und Hände. Christian Work. Written 1737 (Knap p, 1845, p. 234). First published in Appendix vii., circa 1738, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1217, and in 8 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1391, it is united, as in Knapp, with "Gesinde des Heilands". Translated as:— Grace! how good, how cheap, how free. This is a translation, by C. Kinchen, of stanza v., as No. 28 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1742. Included in Spurgeon's Our Own Hymn Book, 1866. vii. Glanz der Ewigkeit. Morning. In the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 13, dated Berlin, May, 1721. First published as No. 470 in the Sammlung, 1725, in 15 stanzas of 6 lines. In Knapp, 1845, p. 16. The only stanza translated into English is stanza xi. as part of "Jesu, geh' voran”. viii. Grosser Bundes-Engel. Ascensiontide. Written for Ascension Day (his birthday), 1740 (Knapp, 1845, p. 144, dated May 26, 1740). First published in Appendix xi., circa 1741, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1426, in 27 stanzas of 8 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 603. Translated as:— Lord, when Thou saidst, So let it be. This is a translation, by C. G. Clemens, of stanza iii., as No. 156 in the Moravian Hymn Book , 1789 (1849, No. 190). Included in the Congregational Hymn Book, 1836, and in Dr. Martineau's Hymns, 1840 and 1873. ix. Heiliger, heiliger, heiliger Herr Zebaoth. Eternal Life. Heaven Anticipated. The Rev. J. T. Müller, of Herrnhut, informs me that this was written in 1723 on the occasion of the birthday (Oct.6) of Zinzendorf s grandmother, H. C. von Gersdorf. Knapp, 1845, p. 193, dates it Oct. 18, 1723. First published as No. 1078 (2) in the 2nd ed., circa 1728, of the Sammlung in 7 stanzas of 7 lines, entitled, Closing Hymn. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, stanza ii., iii., beginning "Hatten wir," are included as stanzas i., ii., of No. 1739. Translated as:— Had we nought, had we nought. This is a translation of stanzas ii., iii., by W. O. Keley, as No. 1189 in the 1808 Supplement to the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801 (1849, No. 1186), and repeated in J. A. Latrobe's Psalms & Hymns, 1841, No. 475. x. Ich bin ein kleines Kindelein. Children. This is No. 1022 in the 3rd ed., 1731, of the Sammlung, in 13 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1214, and in the Hist. Nachricht thereto (1835, p. 188) marked as a catechetical hymn for children, and dated 1723. Knapp, 1845, p. 40, dates it June, 1723, and alters it to "Ich bin ein Kindlein, arm und klein." It is a simple and beautiful hymn, and is contained in a number of recent German non-Moravian collections, e.g. in the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 1408. Translated as:— 1. Saviour, who didst from Heaven come down. This is a free translation of stanzas ii.,iii., v., made by James Bullivant Tomalin in 1860, and contributed to Lord Selborne's Book of Praise, ed. 1866, Appendix, No. 27, with the note at p. 500, "I am indebted for this to the kindness of the translator." Repeated in S. D. Major's Book of Praise for Home & School, 1869, and in America in the Baptist Service of Song, 1871, &c. In M. W. Stryker's Christian Chorals, 1885, and Church Song, 1889, it is altered, beginning, "O Saviour, Who from Heav'n came down." 2. I am a little child you see. By C. Kinchen, as No. 49 in the Moravian Hymn Book 1742. This form is followed in the edition of 1886, No. 1038, and in the Bible Hymn Book, 1845. In the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789, it begins with stanza ii., "Thou, gracious Saviour, for my good;" and this form altered to, "My Saviour dear, Thou for my good," is in Montgomery's Christian Psalmist, 1825. xi. Kommt, Sünder, und blicket dem ewigen Sohne. Repentance or Lent. Mr. Müller informs me that this was written in Aug. 1736, at , 1845, p. 130, dates it Nov. 22,1738. First published in Appendix viii., circa 1739, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1308, in 9 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch 1778, No. 321. Translated as:— Sinners! come; the Saviour see. This a good and full translation by C. Kinchen, as No. 120, in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1742. Of this stanzas i., ii. are included in Spurgeon's Our Own Hymn Book, 1866. Other forms are (1) "Are you formed a creature new" (stanza vi.). In the Moravian Hymn Book, 1769 (1886, No. 1280), Montgomery's Christian Psalmist, 1825, &c. (2) "Rise, go forth to meet the Lamb" (stanza viii. alt.). In J. A. Latrobe's Psalms & Hymns, 1852, No. 457. xii. Kron' und Lohn behertzter Ringer. The Beatitudes. Founded on St. Matt. v. 3-12. In his Teutsche Gedichte, 1735. p. 41, dated, Sept. 7, 1722 (his marriage day), and entitled, "Thoughts on my own marriage." First published as No. 700 in the Sammlung, 1725, in 16 stanzas of 12 lines. In Knapp, 1845, p. 30. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 513, beginning, "Jesu, der du uns erworben." Translated as:— Jesu! Lord so great and glorious. This, omitting stanzas xiv., xv., is No. 226 in pt. ii. of the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754, as "Jesus, Lord most great and glorious"). The versions of stanzas i., ix., xvi., from the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789, were included in the Dalston Hospital Hymn Book, 1848. xiii. Naht heran, ihr lieben Glieder. Holy Communion. Written in 1731 (Knapp, 1845, p. 212). 1st published in the 3rd ed., 1731, of the Sammlung as No. 1416 in 16 stanzas of 4 lines. Also in the Brüder Gesang-Buch 1778, No. 1148. Translated as:— 1. Friends in Jesus, now draw near. This is a free translation, omitting stanza v., vi., viii.-x.,xiv., by Miss Borthwick in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 4th ser., 1862, p. 57, the German being quoted as "Kommt herein, ihr lieben Glieder." This translation is repeated in full in Lyra Eucharistica, 1863, p. 34, and abridged in G. S. Jellicoe's Collection 1867, Windle, No. 480, and Harland, 1876, No. 451. 2. Come, approach to Jesu's table. This is No. 556 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789 (1849, No. 965), xiv. 0 du Hüter Ephraim. Supplication for Grace. In his Teutsche Gedichte, 1735,p. 158, dated 1728,entitled, "On his wife's 28th birthday " (she was born Nov. 7, 1700), and with the note, "This poem was written for the birthday festival of the Countess, was sung by a company or coterie of friends, each member of which was indicated according to their circumstances at the time." It had previously appeared, without the first stanza, and this form, which begins, "Herz der göttlichen Natur". xv. Rath, Kraft, und Held, und Wunderbar. Christmas. Founded on Is. ix. 6. In his Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 25, in 9 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled, "Christmas Thoughts," and dated 1721; and in the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch,1735, No. 827. In Knapp, 1845, p. 21. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 488, it begins with stanza vi., "Mein alles! mehr als alle Welt." Translated as:— My all things more than earth and sky. This is a translation of stanza vi., by C. G. Clemens, as No. 306 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789. In 1801 altered to "My all in all, my faithful Friend;" and to this in 1826, trs. of stanzas ii., vii.-ix.,by P. Latrobe, were added (1886.No. 399). From this form a cento in 5 stanzas of L. M., beginning, "O Lord! Thou art my rock, my guide," was included in Dr. Martineau's Hymns, 1840. xvi. Ruht aus von eurer Mühe. Christian Church. Written in 1737 (Knapp 1845, p. 232, as Du gestern und auch heute). First published in Appendix vi., circa 1737, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1183, in 8 stanzas of 8 lines, entitled, "Hymn of the witnesses." In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, stanza iv. is given as No. 1042. Translated as:— 0 Jesus Christ, most holy. This is a translation of stanza iv. by C. G. Clemens, as No. 487 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789 (1849, No. 807 ; 1886, No. 795, beginning, "Lord Jesus Christ") Included in Spurgeon's Our Own Hymn Book, 1866. xvii. Seligs Volk der Zeugenwolk. Holy Communion. Written in 1739 (Knapp, 1845, p. 138, beginning, "Christi Blut, Die Segensfluth," and p. 256, "Selig Volk.") First published in Appendix viii., circa 1739, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1340, in 14 stanzas of 8 lines, entitled, "Hymn at the Feast of Love." In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, as Nos. 1127 and 1422, the latter beginning, "Werther Tod und Wunden roth; " and including stanza xi. ("Wisst ihr was? So heisst der Pass"), xiii., xiv. Translated as:— 1. Would the world our passport see. This is a translation of stanza xi., xiii. as No. 1152 in the 1808 Supplement to the Moravian Hymn Book of 1801 (1886, No. 895). Included as No. 212 in J. A. Latrobe's Psalms & Hymns, 1841. 2. Flock of Grace, ye Witnesses. This is No. 40 in pt. iii. 1748 of the Moravian Hymn Book. 3. Happy race of witnesses. By C. Kinchen as No. 551 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789. In 1886 four stanzas are given as No. 951, and the other two beginning, "Eat and rest at this great feast" (stanza viii.) as No. 1022. xviii. Was hatten wir für Freude oder Ehre . Repentance. Written in 1739 (Knapp, 1845, p. 139). First published in Appendix viii., circa 1739, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1349, and in 48 stanza of 2 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 396, reduced to 19 stanzas. Translated as:— What Joy or Honour could we have. In full as No. 161 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1742; abridged in 1789 to 12, and in 1801 to 7 stanzas. The 1801 version, which represents stanzas i.-iv., viii., ix., xi. was included in Montgomery's Christian Psalmist, 1825; and with the trs. of stanzas iii., xi. omitted, and a hortatory stanza added, as No. 268 in J. A. Latrobe's Psalms & Hymns, 1841. In the Moravian Hymn Book, 1886, No. 322, it begins with the translation of stanza iii., "None is so holy, pure, and just." xix. Wenn sich die Kinder freuen. Christian Work. Written about 1752 (Knapp, 1845, p. 179, as "Wenn wir uns kindlich freuen"). Included as No. 2101 in the London Gesang-Buch (Etwas vom Liede Mosis, &c), 1753, in 15 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 490 consists of stanzas i.—iii., vi., ix., xiii.-xv. beginning, "Wenu wir uns kindlich freuen." Translated as:— 1. When we seek with loving heart. By Miss Borthwick, in full from the 1778 (with an original stanza as stanza ix.) in the Family Treasury, 1861, pt. ii., p. 112, and in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 1862, p. 89 (1884, p. 250). Repeated, abridged, in E. T. Prust's Supplemental Hymn Book, 1869. 2. When the children joyful are. This is No. 312 in pt. ii. of the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754. 3. When children are rejoicing . This is at p. 373 of pt. ii. in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754. xx. Wir sind nur dazu. Christian Warfare. Written in 1734 (Knapp, 1845, p. 113). First published in Appendix iii., circa 1737, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1073, and in 21 stanzas of 6 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1330 has 13 stanzas; while stanza xvii. ("Die Streitertreue") is given as stanza v. of No. 1394. Translated as:— Warrior, on thy station stand. This is a translation of stanza xvii. as No. 1161 in the 1808 Supplement to the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801 (1886, No. 896). Adopted by Dr. Martineau in his Hymns, 1840 and 1873, altered to "Warrior! to thy duty stand." Hymns not in English common use:— xxi. Auf, auf, es ist geschehe. Holy Communion. This is No. 166 in the Sammlung, 1725, in 12 stanzas of 4 lines, and in the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 2. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1188 it begins, "Ich eil in Jesu Armen" (5 stanzas being added, and stanzas viii., xi. omitted), and in the Hist. Nachricht thereto (ed. 1851, p. 188) is marked as written on the occasion of his first communion in 1714. In Knapp, 1845, p. 6, it begins, "Ist's ja, es ist geschehen," Translated as "Happy, thrice happy hour of grace." By L. T. Nyberg, of stanzas i., xii., as No. 693 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789 (1886, No. 1021) ; repeated in C. H. Bateman's Congregational Psalmist, 1846. xxii. Christen sind ein göttlich Volk. Christian Life. In the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 231, dated 1731, and entitled, "Hymn for a Royal Princess-apparent," viz. for Charlotte Amelia, daughter of King Christian VI. of Denmark. It had appeared in the Nachlese of 1733 to Knapp, 1845, p. 97, and in the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 491. Translated as “Christians are a holy band, Gathered by the Saviour's hand." This is by Dr. J. F. Hurst in his translation of K. R. Hagenbach's History of the Church in the 18th and 19th Centuries, N. Y., 1869, vol. i., p. 434. xxiii. Das äussre Schifflein wälgert sich. For those at Sea. First published in the Zugabe, circa 1744, to Appendix xi. to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1855, in 16 stanzas of 4 lines entitled, "Hymn for the ship's company, February, 1743." Written during a stormy passage from America to Germany. In Knapp, 1845, p. 164. The translations are: (1) "Our ship upon the surging sea." In the British Herald, Aug. 1866, p. 313, repeated in Reid's Praise Book, 1872. (2) "Our little bark, it rocks itself." In L. Rehfuess's Church at Sea, 1868, p. 18. xxiv. Die Christen gehn von Ort zu Ort. Burial of the Dead. In the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 113, as part of No. 45, which is entitled "Over the grave of the grandmother" (Henriette Catharine von Gersdorf. She died March 6, 1726), and dated March, 1726. The hymn itself is entitled, "Air after the funeral rites." It had appeared in the Andere Zugabe, circa 1730, to the Sammlung as No. 6 (ed. 1731, No. 1246), in 3 stanzas of 8 lines entitled, “Funeral Hymn." In Knapp, 1845, p. 72, and in the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1701. The translations are : 1) "Believers go from place to place." By Dr. J. Hunt in his Spiritual Songs of Martin Luther, 1853, p. 146. (2) "Through scenes of woe, from place to place." By Dr. G. Walker, 1860, p. 50. (3) "From place to place the Christian goes." By J. D. Burns in his Memoir & Remains, 1869, p. 263. (4) “From land to land the Christian goes." This is No. 1251 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1886. xxv. Du innig geliebter Erloser der Sünder. Readiness to serve Christ. Written in 1735 (Knapp, 1845, p. 222). First published in Appendix iv., circa 1737, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1080, and in 6 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1335. Translated as "Sinners' Redeemer whom we only love." This is a translation of stanzas i., iv., v., by C. Kinchen, as No. 121 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1742. In the 1789 and later editions (1886, No. 861), it begins, "Sinners' Redeemer, gracious Lamb of God." The text of 1742, slightly altered, is No. 206 in Lady Huntingdon's Selection, 1780. xxvi. Du Vater aller Geister. Evening. In the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 15, entitled, "Evening Thoughts," and dated Oct. 1721. It is No. 497 in the Sammlung, 1725, in 6 stanzas of 8 lines. In Knapp, 1845, p. 16, and in the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 235. Translated as “Father of living Nature." By H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 102. xxvii. Gesinde des Heilands des seligen Gottes. Christian Work. Written in 1737 (Knapp, 1845, p. 234), first published in Appendix vii., circa 1738, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1216, and in 10 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1391. Translated as "Ye blest Domestics of the slaughter'd Lamb." In full as No. 178 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1742 (1754, pt. ii., No. 250). Repeated, abridged, in the Bible Hymn Book, 1845, No. 286. xxviii. Ich bitt dich, herzliches Gottes-Lamm! Love to Christ. Written in Oct. 1741 (Knapp, 1845, p. 152, as "Ein selig Herze führt diese Sprach"). First published in Appendix xi., circa 1743, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1724, and in 12 stanzas of 5 lines, In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 704, it begins, with stanza ii., altered to "Ein selges Herze führt diese Sprach." Translated as "When heavenwards my best affections move." By Miss Borthwick (from the 1778), dated April, 1861, in the Family Treasury , 1861, p. 328. In Hymns from the Land of Luther, 4th ser., 1862, p. 60 (1884, p. 223), altered to "When towards heaven." xxix. 0 du Hüter Ephraim. Burial of the Dead. This is included at p. 10 in the Nachlese of 1733 to the 3rd ed. 1731 of the Sammlung, and is in 8 stanzas of 8 lines, entitled, "Of departure to the Father;" and in the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 256, entitled, "In the name of the community." Included as No. 695 in the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, 1735, beginning with stanza ii. altered to "Tödten ist dem Herrn erlaubt." In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1715, it begins with stanza iii., "Ehmals sollts gestorben sein," and in the Hist. Nachricht thereto (1835, p. 190) is marked as written on the death of Matthaus Linner in 1732. In Knapp, 1845, p. 101. Translated as "Once the sentence justly sounded." By Miss Borthwick in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 1862, p. 92 (1884, p. 252). xxx. 0 Liebe, die in fremde Noth. On Unity. In the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 94, dated 1725, and entitled, "On the Saviour's faithfulness." First published as No. 198 (b) in the 1725 Sammlung, in 18 stanzas of 4 lines. In the London Gesang-Buch, 1753, No. 1764, stanzas ix., x., beginning, " Der du noch in der letzten Nacht," were given as a separate hymn; and this form is repeated in the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 714, the Berlin Geistliches Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 1037, &c. In Knapp, 1845, p. 70. The translations, all of stanza ix., x., are: (1) "Lord Jesus, who that very night." By P. H. Molther, as stanzas ii., iii. of No. 387 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789 (1886, No. 477, beginning, "Lord Jesus, in that"). (2) "Thou Who didst die for all and each." By Miss Cox, 1841, p. 147. (3) "O Thou, Who with Thy latest breath." By Lady E. Fortescue, 1843, p. 66. (4) "Thou who in that bitter night." By Miss Warner, 1858, p. 436. (5) "Thou who in that last sad night." By Miss Fry, 1859, p. 151. (6) "Thou who upon that last sad night." In the Family Treasury, 1859, p. 200. (7) "O Thou who didst on that last night." By R. Massie in the British Herald, Feb. 1865, p. 28. (8) "O Thou, who on that last sad eve." By E. Massie, 1866, p. 69. xxxi. O wie so gliicklich waren wir. Love to Christ. On the blessedness of union with Christ. First published in Appendix vii., circa 1738, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1237, and in 8 stanzas of 8 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 829, and in the Hist. Nachricht thereto (1835, p. 186) marked as written for J. A. Rothe (p. 978, i.), and dated 1737. In Knapp, 1845, p. 236. Translated as "How full our cup of joy would be." By Miss Burlingham in the British Herald, Sept. 1865, p. 131, and in Reid's Praise Book, 1872. xxxii. Reiner Bräutgam meiner Seelen. Desire for Holiness. Written in 1721 (Knapp, 1845, p. 21). Included in the 2nd edition, circa 1728, of the Sammlung as No. 1001, and in the Christ-Catholisches Singe- und Bet-Büchlein, 1727, p. 133, in 30 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 798. Translated as "Jesu, to Thee my heart I bow." This is a free translation of stanzas i., x.-xii., xvi., xvii., by J. Wesley in Psalms & Hymns, Charlestown, 1736-7, and Hymns and Sacred Poems, 1739 (Poetical Works 1868-72, vol i., p. 109). Repeated in the Wesley Hymns & Spiritual Songs, 1753, Moravian Hymn Book, 1754, Bayley's Selection, Manchester, 1789, Bateman's Congregational Psalmist, 1846. xxxiii. Schau von deinem Thron. Supplication. Written in 1720 (Knapp, 1845, p. 14), and founded on the Lord's Prayer. In the Sammlung, 1725, No. 443, in 6 stanzas of 6 lines. Translated as "All glory to the Eternal Three." By J. Wesley in Hymns & Sacred Poems, 1739 (Poetical Works, 1868-72, vol. i., p. 130). xxxiv. Solche Leute will der König küssen. Humility. First published in Appendix vii., circa 1738, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1241, and in 4 stanzas of 4 lines. Mr. Müller informs me that it was written in 1738, and was dedicated to Eva Maria Immig née Ziegelbauer, who on March 5,1740, became the wife of A. G. Spangenberg. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 842, stanzas ii., iii. are stanzas i., iv. of this Knapp, 1845, p. 89 dates it 1728. The translations are:—(1) "To such the King will give a kiss of Love." This is No. 154 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1742 (1754, pt. ii., No. 62). (2) "His loving kindness those shall richly share." This is No. 508 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801. (3) "Such the King will stoop to and embrace." By Miss Winkworth, 1869, p. 310. xxxv. Verliebter in die Sünderschaft. Love to Christ. First published in Appendix iii., circa 1737, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1072, in 4 stanzas of 8 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch

Augustus Toplady

1740 - 1778 Person Name: Augustus M. Toplady, 1740-1778 Hymnal Number: d46 Author of "Fels des Heils, geoeffnet mir" in Deutsches Christliches Gesangbuch der Amischen Christlichen Kirche Toplady, Augustus Montague, the author of "Rock of Ages," was born at Farnham, Surrey, November 4, 1740. His father was an officer in the British army. His mother was a woman of remarkable piety. He prepared for the university at Westminster School, and subsequently was graduated at Trinity College, Dublin. While on a visit in Ireland in his sixteenth year he was awakened and converted at a service held in a barn in Codymain. The text was Ephesians ii. 13: "But now, in Christ Jesus, ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ." The preacher was an illiterate but warm-hearted layman named Morris. Concerning this experience Toplady wrote: "Strange that I, who had so long sat under the means of grace in England, should be brought nigh unto God in an obscure part of Ireland, amidst a handful of God's people met together in a barn, and under the ministry of one who could hardly spell his name. Surely this is the Lord's doing, and it is marvelous." In 1758, through the influence of sermons preached by Dr. Manton on the seventeenth chapter of John, he became an extreme Calvinist in his theology, which brought him later into conflict with Mr. Wesley and the Methodists. He was ordained to the ministry in the Church of England in 1762, and in 1768 he became vicar of Broadhembury, a small living in Devonshire, which he held until his death. The last two or three years of his life he passed in London, where he preached in a chapel on Orange Street. His last sickness was of such a character that he was able to make a repeated and emphatic dying testimony. A short time before his death he asked his physician what he thought. The reply was that his pulse showed that his heart was beating weaker every day. Toplady replied with a smile: "Why, that is a good sign that my death is fast approaching; and, blessed be God, I can add that my heart beats stronger and stronger every day for glory." To another friend he said: "O, my dear sir, I cannot tell you the comforts I feel in my soul; they are past expression. . . . My prayers are all converted into praise." He died of consumption August 11, 1778. His volume of Psalms and Hymns for Public and Private Worship was published in 1776. Of the four hundred and nineteen hymns which it contained, several were his own productions. If on a quiet sea 446 Rock of ages, cleft for me 279 Hymn Writers of the Church, 1915 by Charles S. Nutter =============================================== Toplady, Augustus Montague, M.A. The life of Toplady has been repeatedly and fully written, the last, a somewhat discursive and slackly put together book, yet matterful, by W. Winters (1872). Summarily, these data may be here given: he was born at Farnham, in Surrey, on November 4, 1740. His father, Richard Toplady, was a Major in the British array, and was killed at the siege of Carthagena (1741) soon after the birth of his son. His widowed mother placed him at the renowned Westminster school, London. By-and-by circumstances led her to Ireland, and young Augustus was entered at Trinity College, Dublin, where he completed his academical training, ultimately graduating M.A. He also received his "new birth" in Ireland under remarkable conditions, as he himself tells us with oddly mixed humility and lofty self-estimate, as "a favourite of heaven," common to his school:— "Strange that I who had so long sat under the means of grace in England should be brought right unto God in an obscure part of Ireland, midst a handful of people met together in a barn, and by the ministry of one who could hardly spell his own name. Surely it was the Lord's doing and is marvellous. The excellency of such power must be of God and cannot be of man. The regenerating spirit breathes not only on whom but likewise, when and where and as He listeth." Toplady received orders in the Church of England on June 6, 1762, and after some time was appointed to Broadhembury. His Psalms and Hymns of 1776 bears that he was then “B.A." and Vicar of Broadhembury. Shortly thereafter be is found in London as minister of the Chapel of the French Calvinists in Leicester Fields. He was a strong and partizan Calvinist, and not well-informed theologically outside of Calvinism. We willingly and with sense of relief leave unstirred the small thick dust of oblivion that has gathered on his controversial writings, especially his scurrilous language to John Wesley because of his Arminianism, as we do John Wesley's deplorable misunderstanding and misrepresentation of Calvinism. Throughout Toplady lacked the breadth of the divine Master's watchword "Forbid him not, for he that is not against us is for us" (St. Luke ix. 50). He was impulsive, rash-spoken, reckless in misjudgment; but a flame of genuine devoutness burned in the fragile lamp of his overtasked and wasted body. He died on August 11, 1778. The last edition of his works is in 6 vols., 8 vo., 1825. An accurate reproduction of most of his genuine hymns was one of the reprints of Daniel Sedgwick, 1860. His name occurs and recurs in contemporary memoirs and ecclesiastical histories, e.g., in Tyerman's Life of John Wesley. The reader will find in their places annotations on the several hymns of Toplady, and specially on his "Rock of Ages,” a song of grace that has given him a deeper and more inward place in millions of human hearts from generation to generation than almost any other hymnologist of our country, not excepting Charles Wesley. Besides the "Rock of Ages" must be named, for power, intensity, and higher afflatus and nicer workmanship, "Object of my first desire,” and "Deathless principle arise." It is to be regretted that the latter has not been more widely accepted. It is strong, firm, stirring, and masterful. Regarded critically, it must be stated that the affectionateness with which Toplady is named, and the glow and passion of his faith and life, and yearning after holiness, have led to an over-exaltation of him as a hymnwriter. Many of his hymns have been widely used, and especially in America, and in the Evangelical hymnbooks of the Church of England. Year by year, however, the number in use is becoming less. The reason is soon found. He is no poet or inspired singer. He climbs no heights. He sounds no depths. He has mere vanishing gleams of imaginative light. His greatness is the greatness of goodness. He is a fervent preacher, not a bard. [Rev. A. B. Grosart, D.D., LL.D.] Toplady's hymns and poetical pieces were published in his:— (1) Poems on Sacred Subjects wherein The Fundamental Doctrines of Christianity, with many other interesting Points, are occasionally introduced. . . Dublin: Printed by S. Powell, in Crane-lane, MDCCLIX.; (2) his Psalms & Hymns for Public and Private Worship, 1776; (3) in The Gospel Magazine, 1771-1776; and (4) in Hymns and Sacred Poems on a variety of Divine Subjects, &c. D. Sedgwick's reprint, 1860. His Works, with a Memoir by W. Row, were published in 6 volumes, in 1794. Walter How was also the editor of the 2nd and some later editions of the Psalms & Hymns. He was a most careless editor, and attributed several hymns by C. Wesley and others to Toplady. The following additional hymns in common use together with centos indicated in the sub-lines, are from:— i. His Poems on Sacred Subjects, 1759. 1. Can my heaven-born soul submit? All for Christ. 2. Come from on high, my King and God. Holiness desired. (1.) 0 might this worthless heart of mine. 3. Earnest of future bliss. The Witness of the Spirit. 4. From Thy supreme tribunal, Lord. Christ's Righteousness a Refuge. (1.) The spotless Saviour lived for me. 5. Great God, Whom heaven, and earth, and sea. For Peace. 6. I saw, and lo! a countless throng. Saints' Days. Revised form in the Gospel Magazine, 1774, p. 449. 7. Immovable our hope remains. Divine Faithfulness. 8. Jesus, God of love, attend. Divine Worship. Pt. ii. is "Prayer can mercy's door unlock." 9. Jesus, Thy power I fain would feel. Lent. 10. Lord, I feel a carnal mind. Mind of Christ desired. 11. My yielding heart dissolves as wax. On behalf of Arians, &c. (1.) 0 Jesus, manifest Thy grace. 12. Not to myself I owe. Praise for Conversion, (1.) Not to ourselves we owe. (2.) The Father's grace and love. 13. 0 that my heart was right with Thee. Dedication to God desired. 14. 0 Thou that hearest the prayer of faith. Christ the Propitiation. 15. 0 Thou Who didst Thy glory leave. Thanksgiving for Redemption. 16. 0 when wilt Thou my Saviour be. Trust in Jesus. (1.) Jesus, the sinner's Rest Thou art. 17. Redeemer, whither should I flee? Safety in the Cross. 18. Remember, Lord, that Jesus bled. Pardon. 19. Surely Christ thy griefs hath borne. Redemption. Revised text in Gospel Magazine, 1774, p. 548. (1.) Weary sinner, keep thine eyes. (2.) Weeping soul, no longer mourn. ii. From the Gospel Magazine. 20. Compared with Christ, in all besides. Christ All in All. Feb. 1772. 21. Eternal Hallelujahs Be to the Father given. Holy Trinity, Dec. 1774. 22. From whence this fear and unbelief. Reviving Faith, Feb. 1772. 23. How vast the benefits divine. Redemption. Dec. 1774. From this "Not for the works which we have done" is taken. 24. Whom have I in heaven but Thee? Christ All and in All, Feb. 1772. From this "If my Lord Himself reveal" is taken. 25. Jesus, immutably the same. Jesus, the True Vine. June, 1771. All these hymns, together with "O precious blood, 0 glorious death" (Death of Christ), are in D. Sedgwick's reprint of Toplady's Hymns, &c, 1860. We have met with several other hymns to which Toplady's name is appended, but for this we can find no authority whatever. -- Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Joachim Neander

1650 - 1680 Hymnal Number: d73 Author of "Himmel, Erde, Luft und Meer" in Deutsches Christliches Gesangbuch der Amischen Christlichen Kirche Neander, Joachim, was born at Bremen, in 1650, as the eldest child of the marriage of Johann Joachim Neander and Catharina Knipping, which took place on Sept. 18, 1649, the father being then master of the Third Form in the Paedagogium at Bremen. The family name was originally Neumann (Newman) or Niemann, but the grandfather of the poet had assumed the Greek form of the name, i.e. Neander. After passing through the Paedagogium he entered himself as a student at the Gymnasium illustre (Academic Gymnasium) of Bremen in Oct. 1666. German student life in the 17th century was anything but refined, and Neander seems to have been as riotous and as fond of questionable pleasures as most of his fellows. In July 1670, Theodore Under-Eyck came to Bremen as pastor of St. Martin's Church, with the reputation of a Pietist and holder of conventicles. Not long after Neander, with two like-minded comrades, went to service there one Sunday, in order to criticise and find matter of amusement. But the earnest words of Under-Eyck touched his heart; and this, with his subsequent conversations with Under-Eyck, proved the turning-point of his spiritual life. In the spring of 1671 he became tutor to five young men, mostly, if not all, sons of wealthy merchants at Frankfurt-am-Main, and accompanied them to the University of Heidelberg, where they seem to have remained till the autumn of 1673, and where Neander learned to know and love the beauties of Nature. The winter of 1673-74 he spent at Frankfurt with the friends of his pupils, and here he became acquainted with P. J. Spener (q.v.) and J. J. Schütz (q.v.) In the spring of 1674 he was appointed Rector of the Latin school at Düsseldorf (see further below). Finally, in 1679, he was invited to Bremen as unordained assistant to Under-Eyck at St. Martin's Church, and began his duties about the middle of July. The post was not inviting, and was regarded merely as a stepping stone to further preferment, the remuneration being a free house and 40 thalers a year, and the Sunday duty being a service with sermon at the extraordinary hour of 5 a.m. Had he lived, Under-Eyck would doubtless have done his best to get him appointed to St. Stephen's Church, the pastorate of which became vacant in Sept., 1680. But meantime Neander himself fell into a decline, and died at Bremen May 31, 1680 (Joachim Neander, sein Leben und seine Lieder. With a Portrait. By J. F. Iken, Bremen, 1880; Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, xxiii. 327, &c.) Neander was the first important hymn-writer of the German Reformed Church since the written mostly at Düsseldorf, after his lips had been sealed to any but official work. The true history of his unfortunate conflict has now been established from the original documents, and may be summarized thus. The school at Düsseldorf was entirely under the control of the minister and elders of the Reformed Church there. The minister from about July, 1673, to about May, 1677, was Sylvester Lürsen (a native of Bremen, and only a few years older than Neander), a man of ability and earnestness, but jealous, and, in later times at least, quarrelsome. With him Neander at first worked harmoniously, frequently preaching in the church, assisting in the visitation of the sick, &c. But he soon introduced practices which inevitably brought on a conflict. He began to hold prayer meetings of his own, without informing or consulting minister or elders; he began to absent himself from Holy Communion, on the ground that he could not conscientiously communicate along with the unconverted, and also persuaded others to follow this example; and became less regular in his attendance at the ordinary services of the Church. Besides these causes of offence he drew out a new timetable for the school, made alterations on the school buildings, held examinations and appointed holidays without consulting any one. The result of all this was a Visitation of the school on Nov. 29, 1676, and then his suspension from school and pulpit on Feb. 3, 1677. On Feb. 17 he signed a full and definite declaration by which "without mental reservations" he bound himself not to repeat any of the acts complained of; and thereupon was permitted to resume his duties as rector but not as assistant minister. The suspension thus lasted only 14 days, and his salary was never actually stopped. The statements that he was banished from Düsseldorf, and that he lived for months in a cave in the Neanderthal near Mettmann are therefore without foundation. Still his having had to sign such a document was a humiliation which he must have felt keenly, and when, after Lürsen's departure, the second master of the Latin school was appointed permanent assistant pastor, this feeling would be renewed. Neander thus thrown back on himself, found consolation in communion with God and Nature, and in the composition of his hymns. Many were without doubt inspired by the scenery of the Neanderthal (a lovely valley with high rocky sides, between which flows the little river Düssel); and the tradition is probable enough that some of them were composed in a cave there. A number were circulated among his friends at Düsseldorf in MS., but they were first collected and published after his removal to Bremen, and appeared as:— A und Ώ, Joachimi Neandri Glaub-und Liebesübung: — auffgemuntert durch ein fällige Bundes Lieder und Danck-Psalmen, Bremen, Hermann Brauer, 1680; 2nd ed. Bremen, 1683 ; 3rd ed. Bremen, 1687; 4th ed. Frankfurt, 1689. These editions contain 57 hymns. In the 5th ed., Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1691, edited by G. C. Strattner, eight hymns were added as being also by Neander. [The whole of these eds. are in the Royal Library, Berlin. The so-called 3rd. ed. at Wesel, 1686, also found in Berlin, was evidently pirated.] Other editions rapidly followed till we find the complete set (i.e. 57 or 58) formally incorporated as part of a hymnbook, e.g. in the Marburg Reformed Gesang-Buch, 1722, where the first part consists of Lobwasser's Psalter, the second of Neander's Bundeslieder, and the third of other hymns. Neander's Bundeslieder also form a division of the Lemgo Reformed Gesang-Buch, 1722; and of a favourite book used in the meetings conducted by G. Tersteegen, which in the 5th ed., Solingen, 1760, has the title Gott-geheiligtes Harfen-Spiel der Kinder Zion; bestehend in Joachimi Neandri sämtlichen Bundes-Liedern, &c. In this way, especially in the district near Düsseldorf and on the Ruhr, Neander's name was honoured and beloved long after it had passed out of memory at Bremen. Many of Neander's hymns were speedily received into the Lutheran hymnbooks, and are still in universal use. The finest are the jubilant hymns of Praise and Thanksgiving, such as his "Lobe den Herren”, and those setting forth the Majesty of God in His works of beauty and wonder in Nature, such as his "Himmel, Erde", and "Unbegreiflich Gut"; while some of his hymns of Penitence, such as his "Sieh hier bin ich, Ehrenkönig" (q.v.), are also very beautiful. Many are of a decidedly subjective cast, but for this the circumstances of their origin, and the fact that the author did not expect them to be used in public worship, will sufficiently account. Here and there there are doubtless harshnesses, and occasionally imagery which is rather jarring; and naturally enough the characteristic expressions and points of view of German 17th cent. Pietism and of the "Covenant Theology" are easily enough detected. But the glow and sweetness of his better hymns, their firm faith, originality, Scripturalness, variety and mastery of rhythmical forms, and genuine lyric character fully entitled them to the high place they hold. Of the melodies in the original edition of 1680 there are 19 by Neander himself, the best known being those to Nos. viii. and xi. below. The hymns by Neander which have passed into English, and have not already been referred to, are:— Hymns in English common use: i. Meine Hoffnung stehet feste. Thanksgiving. Founded on 1 Tim. vi. 17. 1680 as above, p. 115, in 5 stanzas of 7 lines, entitled "Grace after meat." In the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 712. Translated as:— All my hope is grounded surely. A full and good translation by Miss Winkworth, as No. 8 in her Chorale Book for England, 1863. Another translation is: "All my Hope is fix'd and grounded." By J. C. Jacobi, 1720, p. 17, repeated in his ed., 1732, p. 64, altered and beginning, "All my Hope is firmly grounded." ii. Unbegreiflich Gut, wahrer Gott alleine. Summer. According to tradition this was written in the summer of 1677, in a cave in the Neanderthal near Düsseldorf, while Neander was in enforced absence from his school duties (Koch, vi. 20). It is founded on Ps. civ. 24. 1680, p. 165, in 12 stanzas of 6 lines, and entitled, "The Joys of Summer and Autumn in Field and Forest." The following note shows that the "Feeling for Nature" is not entirely modern. “It is also a travelling hymn in summer or autumn for those who, on their way to Frankfurt on the Main, go up and down the river Rhine, where between Cologne and Mainz, mountains, cliffs, brooks and rocks are to be beheld with particular wonder; also in the district of Berg in the rocky region [the ‘Gestein' now called the Neanderthal], not far from Düsseldorf." The hymn is in Knapp's Evangelischer Lieder-Schatz 1850, No. 2163 (1865, No. 2231), omitting st. x. Translated as:-— 0 Thou true God alone. A very good translation, omitting st. x., by Miss Winkworth, in her Christian Singers, 1869, p. 286. Her translation of st. i., iii.-v. altered in metre, and beginning "Thou true God alone," are No. 53 in M. W. Stryker's Christian Chorals, 1885. Hymns not in English common use:—— iii. Auf, auf, mein Geist, erhebe dich zum Himmel. Holy Communion. Founded on Ps. xxiii. 6. 1860, as above, p. 27, in 5 stanzas, entitled, "The soul strengthened and refreshed. After the reception of the Holy Communion." In Porst's Gesang-Buch, ed. 1855, No. 218. In the Moravian London Gesang-Buch, 1753, No. 697, it begins, "Den Himmels-Vorschmack hab' ich auf der Erde," and in the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1178, it was further recast (by C. Gregor?) and altered to "hab'ich schon hinieden." Translated as "Heav'n's foretaste I may here already have." By F W. Foster & J. Miller, as No. 596, in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789. In the 1801 ed. (1849, No. 1003) it begins, “Since Jesus dy'd, my guilty soul to save." iv. Der Tag ist hin, mein Jesu, bei mir bleibe. Evening. Founded on St. Luke xxiv. 29. 1680, p. 15, in 6 stanzas entitled, "The Christian returning thanks at eventide." In the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 512. The translations are: (1) "The Day is gone, come Jesu my Protector." In the Supplement to German Psalmody, ed. 1765, p. 72. (2) "The day is past, Thou Saviour dear, still dwell my breast within." By H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 82. (3) "The day is gone, abide with me tonight." By E. Massie, 1867, p. 192. (4) "The day is gone, abide with me, 0 Jesus." By R. Massie, in the Day of Rest, 1877. v. Grosser Prophete, mein Herze begehret. Love to Christ. Founded on 1 Cor. xvi. 22. 1680, p. 191, in 4 stanzas. Translated as “Heavenly Prophet, my Heart is desiring." By J. C. Jacobi, 1720, p. 40. vi. Jehovah ist mein Licht und Gnadensonne. God's Perfections. Founded on 1 John i. 7. 1680, p. 19 in 4 stanzas, entitled, "Walking in the Light." Translated as, "Jehovah is my light, salvation showing." By Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 6). vii. 0 allerhöchster Menschenhüter. Morning. A hymn of praise to our Almighty Preserver. 1680, p. 11, in 6 stanzas, founded on Ps. lix. 16; and entitled, "The Christian singing at Morning." Translated as, "O Thou Most Highest! Guardian of mankind." By Miss Winkworth, 1858, p. 72. viii. Unser Herrscher, unser König. Thanksgiving. Founded on Acts viii. 2. 1680, p. 147, in 6 stanzas, entitled, "The glorious Jehovah." In the Unverfälschter Liedersegen 1851, No. 344. The well-known melody (in the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge Church Hymns called Munich) is also by Neander, and appeared along with the hymn. Translated as, "Sovereign Ruler, King victorious," in the British Herald, Dec, 1865, p. 185, and Reid's Praise Book, 1872. ix. Wie fleucht dahin der Menschenzeit. For the Dying. A powerful hymn on the vanity of the earthly, founded on Ps. xc. 12. 1680, p. 174, in 7 stanzas, entitled, "He that counts his days." In the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 845. The translations are: (1) "This life is like a flying dream" (beginning with st. ii. "Das Leben ist gleich wie ein Traum"). By Mrs. Findlater, in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 1858, p. 24 (1884, p. 146). (2) "Though hastening onward to the grave." By E. Massie, 1867, p. 36. x. Wo soil ich hin? wer helfet mir? Lent. Founded on Romans vii. 24. 1680, p. 51, in 5 st. entitled “The distressed one longing for Redemption." In the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 393. The translations are: (1) "For help, O whither shall I flee." By Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 146). (2) "How shall I get there? who will aid?" By Miss Warner, 1858, p. 52. xi. Wunderbarer König. Thanksgiving. Founded on Ps. cl. 6. 1680, p. 159, in 4 stanzas, entitled, "Inciting oneself to the Praise of God." In the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 787. The melody, a very fine one (called by Mr. Mercer Groningen), is also by Neander, and appeared along with the hymn. The translations are: (1) "Wonderful Creator." By J. C. Jacobi, 1722, p. 88. (2) "Wonderful and blessed." By J. D. Burns in his Memoir and Remains, 1869, p. 230. (3) "Wondrous King Almighty." By N. L. Frothingham, 1870, p. 266. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Charles Wesley

1707 - 1788 Person Name: Charles Wesley, 1707-1788 Hymnal Number: d74 Author of "Hoert wie die w'chter schrein es ist nun" in Deutsches Christliches Gesangbuch der Amischen Christlichen Kirche Charles Wesley, M.A. was the great hymn-writer of the Wesley family, perhaps, taking quantity and quality into consideration, the great hymn-writer of all ages. Charles Wesley was the youngest son and 18th child of Samuel and Susanna Wesley, and was born at Epworth Rectory, Dec. 18, 1707. In 1716 he went to Westminster School, being provided with a home and board by his elder brother Samuel, then usher at the school, until 1721, when he was elected King's Scholar, and as such received his board and education free. In 1726 Charles Wesley was elected to a Westminster studentship at Christ Church, Oxford, where he took his degree in 1729, and became a college tutor. In the early part of the same year his religious impressions were much deepened, and he became one of the first band of "Oxford Methodists." In 1735 he went with his brother John to Georgia, as secretary to General Oglethorpe, having before he set out received Deacon's and Priest's Orders on two successive Sundays. His stay in Georgia was very short; he returned to England in 1736, and in 1737 came under the influence of Count Zinzendorf and the Moravians, especially of that remarkable man who had so large a share in moulding John Wesley's career, Peter Bonier, and also of a Mr. Bray, a brazier in Little Britain. On Whitsunday, 1737, he "found rest to his soul," and in 1738 he became curate to his friend, Mr. Stonehouse, Vicar of Islington, but the opposition of the churchwardens was so great that the Vicar consented that he "should preach in his church no more." Henceforth his work was identified with that of his brother John, and he became an indefatigable itinerant and field preacher. On April 8, 1749, he married Miss Sarah Gwynne. His marriage, unlike that of his brother John, was a most happy one; his wife was accustomed to accompany him on his evangelistic journeys, which were as frequent as ever until the year 1756," when he ceased to itinerate, and mainly devoted himself to the care of the Societies in London and Bristol. Bristol was his headquarters until 1771, when he removed with his family to London, and, besides attending to the Societies, devoted himself much, as he had done in his youth, to the spiritual care of prisoners in Newgate. He had long been troubled about the relations of Methodism to the Church of England, and strongly disapproved of his brother John's "ordinations." Wesley-like, he expressed his disapproval in the most outspoken fashion, but, as in the case of Samuel at an earlier period, the differences between the brothers never led to a breach of friendship. He died in London, March 29, 1788, and was buried in Marylebone churchyard. His brother John was deeply grieved because he would not consent to be interred in the burial-ground of the City Road Chapel, where he had prepared a grave for himself, but Charles said, "I have lived, and I die, in the Communion of the Church of England, and I will be buried in the yard of my parish church." Eight clergymen of the Church of England bore his pall. He had a large family, four of whom survived him; three sons, who all became distinguished in the musical world, and one daughter, who inherited some of her father's poetical genius. The widow and orphans were treated with the greatest kindness and generosity by John Wesley. As a hymn-writer Charles Wesley was unique. He is said to have written no less than 6500 hymns, and though, of course, in so vast a number some are of unequal merit, it is perfectly marvellous how many there are which rise to the highest degree of excellence. His feelings on every occasion of importance, whether private or public, found their best expression in a hymn. His own conversion, his own marriage, the earthquake panic, the rumours of an invasion from France, the defeat of Prince Charles Edward at Culloden, the Gordon riots, every Festival of the Christian Church, every doctrine of the Christian Faith, striking scenes in Scripture history, striking scenes which came within his own view, the deaths of friends as they passed away, one by one, before him, all furnished occasions for the exercise of his divine gift. Nor must we forget his hymns for little children, a branch of sacred poetry in which the mantle of Dr. Watts seems to have fallen upon him. It would be simply impossible within our space to enumerate even those of the hymns which have become really classical. The saying that a really good hymn is as rare an appearance as that of a comet is falsified by the work of Charles Wesley; for hymns, which are really good in every respect, flowed from his pen in quick succession, and death alone stopped the course of the perennial stream. It has been the common practice, however for a hundred years or more to ascribe all translations from the German to John Wesley, as he only of the two brothers knew that language; and to assign to Charles Wesley all the original hymns except such as are traceable to John Wesley through his Journals and other works. The list of 482 original hymns by John and Charles Wesley listed in this Dictionary of Hymnology have formed an important part of Methodist hymnody and show the enormous influence of the Wesleys on the English hymnody of the nineteenth century. -- Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================== Charles Wesley, the son of Samuel Wesley, was born at Epworth, Dec. 18, 1707. He was educated at Westminster School and afterwards at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. In 1735, he took Orders and immediately proceeded with his brother John to Georgia, both being employed as missionaries of the S.P.G. He returned to England in 1736. For many years he engaged with his brother in preaching the Gospel. He died March 29, 1788. To Charles Wesley has been justly assigned the appellation of the "Bard of Methodism." His prominence in hymn writing may be judged from the fact that in the "Wesleyan Hymn Book," 623 of the 770 hymns were written by him; and he published more than thirty poetical works, written either by himself alone, or in conjunction with his brother. The number of his separate hymns is at least five thousand. --Annotations of the Hymnal, Charles Hutchins, M.A., 1872.

Johann Franck

1618 - 1677 Hymnal Number: d130 Author of "Segne und behuete uns durch deine Guete" in Deutsches Christliches Gesangbuch der Amischen Christlichen Kirche Franck, Johann, son of Johann Franck, advocate and councillor at Guben, Brandenburg, was born at Guben, June 1, 1618. After his father's death, in 1620, his uncle by marriage, the Town Judge, Adam Tielckau, adopted him and sent him for his education to the schools at Guben, Cottbus, Stettin and Thorn. On June 28, 1638, he matriculated as a student of law at the University of Königsberg, the only German university left undisturbed by the Thirty Years' War. Here his religious spirit, his love of nature, and his friendship with such men as Simon Dach and Heinrich Held, preserved him from sharing in the excesses of his fellow students. He returned to Guben at Easter, 1640, at the urgent request of his mother, who wished to have him near her in those times of war during which Guben frequently suffered from the presence of both Swedish and Saxon troops. After his return from Prague, May, 1645, he commenced practice as a lawyer. In 1648 he became a burgess and councillor, in 1661 burgomaster, and in 1671 was appointed the deputy from Guben to the Landtag (Diet) of Lower Lusatia. He died at Guben, June 18, 1677; and on the bicentenary of his death, June 18, 1877, a monumental tablet to his memory was affixed to the outer wall of the Stadtkirche at Guben (Koch, iii. 378-385; Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, vii. 211-212; the two works by Dr. Hugo Jentsch of Guben, Johann Franck, 1877, and Die Abfassungszeit der geistlichen Lieder Johann Franck's, 1876). Of Franck's secular poems those before 1649 are much the best; his later productions becoming more and more affected and artificial, long-winded and full of classical allusions, and much inferior to those of Dach or Opitz. As a hymn writer he holds a high rank and is distinguished for unfeigned and firm faith, deep earnestness, finished form, and noble, pithy, simplicity of expression. In his hymns we miss the objectivity and congregational character of the older German hymns, and notice a more personal, individual tone; especially the longing for the inward and mystical union of Christ with the soul as in his "Jesus, meine Freude." He stands in close relationship with Gerhardt, sometimes more soaring and occasionally more profound, but neither on the whole so natural nor so suited for popular comprehension or Church use. His hymns appeared mostly in the works of his friends Weichmann, Crüger and Peter. They were collected in his Geistliches Sion, Guben, 1674, to the number of 110; and of these the 57 hymns (the other 53 being psalm versions of no great merit) were reprinted with a biographical preface by Dr. J. L. Pasig as Johann Franck's Geistliche Lieder, Grimma, 1846. Two of those translated into English are from the Latin of J. Campanus (q. v.). Four other hymns are annotated under their own first lines:—"Brunquell aller Güter"; "Dreieinigkeit der Gottheit wahrer Spiegel"; "Jesu, meine Freude"; "Schmücke dich, o liebe Secle." The rest are:— i. Hymns in English common use: -- i. Erweitert eure Pforten . [Advent]. Founded on Psalm xxiv. 7-10. First published in C. Peter's Andachts-Zymbeln, Freiberg, 1655, p. 25, in 7 stanzas of 8 lines; repeated 1674, p. 3, and 1846, p. 3, as above. Included in the 1688 and later editions of Crüger's Praxis pietatis, in Bollhagen's Gesang-Buch, 1736, &c. The only translation in common use is:—- Unfold your gates and open, a translation of st. 1, 3, 6, by A. T. Russell, as No. 30 in his Hymns & Psalms, 1851; repeated altered as No. 30 in Kennedy, 1863, and thus as No. 102 in Holy Song, 1869. ii. Herr Gott dich loben wir, Regier. Thanksgiving for Peace. Evidently written as a thanksgiving for the conclusion of the Thirty Years' War, by the Peace of Westphalia, Oct. 24, 1648. First published in the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch, Berlin, 1653, No. 306, in 9 st. of 8 l., as the first of the "Hymns of Thanksgiving for Peace attained"; and repeated 1674, p. 182, and 1846, p. 77, as above. Included in Crüger's Praxis, 1653, and many later collections, and, as No. 591, in the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851. The only translation in common use is:— Lord God, we worship Thee, a very good version of st. 2, 3, 6, 8, by Miss Winkworth in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 183. Repeated in full in the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge Church Hymns, 1871; the Hymnary, 1872; the Psalmist, 1878; and in America in the Pennsylvania Lutheran Church Book, 1868. In the American Protestant Episcopal Collection, 1871; the Hymns & Songs of Praise, N. Y. 1874; and the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880, the translation of stanza 8 is omitted. iii. Herr ich habe missgehandelt. Lent. Of this fine hymn of penitence stanza i. appeared as No. 19 in Cruger's Geistliche Kirchenmelodien , Leipzig, 1649. The full form in 8 stanzas of 6 lines is No. 41 in the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch, Berlin, 1653, entitled "For the forgiveness of sins," repeated 1674, p. 39, and 1846, p. 37, as above. Included in Crüger's Praxis, 1653, and others, and in the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851. The only translation in common use is:— Lord, to Thee I make confession, a very good translation, omitting st. 4, 5, 6, by Miss Winkworth in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 44, repeated in the Appendix to the Hymnal for St. John's, Aberdeen, 1865-1870; and in the Pennsylvania Lutheran Ch. Book, 1868; Evangelical Hymnal, N. Y., 1880; Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880. Another translation is: "Lord, how oft I have offended," by N. L. Frothingham, 1870, p. 177. iv. Herr Jesu, Licht der Heiden. Presentation in the Temple. Founded on the account in St. Luke ii., and probably the finest hymn on the subject. Dr. Jentsch, 1876, p. 9, thinks it was written before Dec. 8, 1669, as C. Peter, who died then, left a melody for it. We have not found the full text earlier than 1674, as above, p. 10, in 6 stanzas of 8 lines, entitled "On the Festival of the Purification of Mary" (1846, p. 10). Included in the 1688 and later editions of Crüger's Praxis, and in the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 197. The translations in common use are:— 1. Light of the Gentile world , a translation, omitting st. 6, by Miss Winkworth in the first service of her Lyra Germanica, 1855, p. 193 (ed. 1876, p. 195), and thence as No. 147 in the Pennsylvania Lutheran Hymn Book, 1865. This version is in S.M. Double. 2. Light of the Gentile Nations, a good translation, omitting st. 6, by Miss Winkworth in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 80. Repeated in Dr. Thomas's Augustine Hymn Book, 1866, and in America in the Pennsylvania Lutheran Church Book, 1868, and the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880. ii. Hymns not in English common use: v. Du geballtes Weltgebäude. Christ above all earthly things. Stanza i. in Cruger's Kirchenmelodien, 1649, No. 116. The full text (beginning "Du o schönes) is No. 239 in the Crüger-Runge Gesang-Buch, 1653, in 8 stanzas, entitled "Longing after Eternal Life." Repeated, 1674, p. 194, and 1846, p. 60, as above. The translations are: (1) "Let who will in thee rejoice," by Miss Winkworth, 1855, p. 180 (1876, p. 182). (2) "O beautiful abode of earth," by Miss Warner, 1858 (1861, p. 233). (3) "Thou, O fair Creation-building," by N. L. Frothingham, 1870, p. 232. vi. Unsre müden Augenlieder. Evening. Probably written while a student at Königsberg. First published in J. Weichmann's Sorgen-lägerin, Königsberg, 1648, Pt. iii., No. 4, in 7 st.; repeated 1674, p. 213, and 1846, p. 91, as above. The only translation is by H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 79, beginning with st. vi., "Ever, Lord, on Thee relying." [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Karl Johann Philipp Spitta

1801 - 1859 Person Name: Carl Johann Philipp Spitta Hymnal Number: d37 Author of "Ein Herz und eine Seele war" in Deutsches Christliches Gesangbuch der Amischen Christlichen Kirche Spitta, Carl Johann Philipp, D.D., was born Aug. 1, 1801, at Hannover, where his father, Lebrecht Wilhelm Gottfried Spitta, was then living, as bookkeeper and teacher of the French language. In his eleventh year Spitta fell into a severe illness, which lasted for four years, and so threw him back that his mother (the father died in 1805) abandoned the idea of a professional career, and apprenticed him to a watchmaker. This occupation did not prove at all congenial to him, but he would not confess his dislike, and his family were ignorant of it till an old friend, who was trying to comfort him after the death of a younger brother, discovered his true feelings. The younger brother had been preparing for ordination, and so Carl was now invited by the family to adopt this career. He joyfully accepted the offer, left the workshop in the autumn of 1818, and succeeded, by dint of hard study during the winter, in gaining admission to the highest class in the Gymnasium (Lyceum) at Hannover, which he entered at Easter, 1819. He was thus able, at Easter, 1821, to proceed to the University of Göttingen, where he completed his theological course, under professors of pronounced Rationalistic opinions, at Easter, 1824 (D.D. from Gottingen, 1855). He then became, in the beginning of May, a tutor in the family of Judge (Oberamlmann) Jochnius, at Lüine, near Lüneburg. Here he remained till his ordination on Dec. 10, 1828, as assistant pastor at Sudwalde, near Hoya. In Nov., 1830, he became assistant chaplain to the garrison and to the prison at Hameln on the Weser, and would have succeeded as permanent chaplain there, in the beginning of 1837, had not the military authorities, alarmed by reports which described him as a Pietist and a Mystic, refused to sanction the arrangement. As a compensation, he was appointed pastor at Wechold, near Hoya, in Oct., 1837, and married just before settling there. On his birthday, Aug. 1, 1847, he was instituted as Lutheran superintendent at Wittingen; in Oct., 1853, at Peine; and in July, 1859, at Burgdorf—all his appointments having been in the kingdom of Hannover. A few weeks after removing to Burgdorf he was seized with gastric fever, but had apparently recovered, when, on Sept. 28, 1859, while sitting at his writing table, he was seized with cramp of the heart, and died in a quarter of an hour. Spitta had begun to write in verse when he was eight years old, along with his brother Heinrich. During his university course he continued to write songs and secular poems, and published a collection of songs anonymously as a Sangbüchlein der Liebe für Handwerksleute. At Göttingen he formed a life-long friendship with Adolf Peters. He was also on intimate terms with Heinrich Heine, who was a fellow member with them of the Burschenschaft, or student's patriotic union (see K. Goedeke'sGrundriss, vol. iii., 1881, p. 259); and this friendship continued till Heine, while visiting him at Ltine, so jested at things sacred, even in the presence of Spitta's pupils, that their friendship came to an end. After the spiritual change, which began about the end of his university course, Spitta ceased to write secular pieces. His hymnwriting proper seems to have begun in 1821. In writing to a friend on May 5, 1826, he says, "In the manner in which I formerly sang I sing no more. To the Lord I consecrate my life and my love, and likewise my song. His love is the one great theme of all my songs; to praise and exalt it worthily is the desire of the Christian singer. He gave to me song and melody; I give it back to Him." The most fruitful period of his hymnwriting was at Lüne, where many of his most popular hymns were composed in the quiet evenings, in his own room, often after fasting, and when, sitting at the piano or at his harp, he had tuned his spirit to song. Many others were inspired by the beautiful scenery of the valley of the Weser, and by the intercourse with friends during his residence at Hameln. In his later years his ecclesiastical duties absorbed his attention, and hardly any of his hymns were written after 1847. A number of them were first printed in the Christliche Monatsschrift zur häuslichen Erbauung für alle Stände, which appeared from Jan. to June, 1826, and was edited by Spitta and by Pastor Deichmann, of Lüneburg. Various causes doubtless contributed to the popularity of Spitta's Psalter und Harfe. The hymns therein are, as a rule, of moderate length, are clear and simple in style, refined in diction, sweet, flowing and melodious. Their quiet beauty, their tone of earnest, sincere, and childlike piety, of glowing devotion to the Saviour, and of calm resting on, what to Spitta were, the eternal verities, endeared them to all ranks and classes. They form a faithful mirror of his inner life and Chritian experience. They at once met and ministered to the revival of Evangelical religion in Germany, and thus enjoyed somewhat of the same good fortune and popularity which the renewed churchly life in England brought to Keble's Christian Year. As the title adopted shows Spitta meant them for family and private use, and for this they are best fitted, being, for the most part, subjective and individnal. They speedily, however, passed into the German hymnbooks for church use, both at home and abroad, and translations of them are found in almost all recent English and American collections. Another element of Spitta's popularity in Germany has been contributed by the very numerous musical settings which have appeared to his hymns. Koch, vii., 246, gives a list of the more important of the collective editions, but, besides these, many of the separate pieces have been set to music by various composers, the "Angel of Patience" being one of the greatest favourites. A number of Spitta's hymns are annotated under their original first lines. Of the rest we may note here the following:— I. From his Psalter und Harfe. 1st Series, Pirna, 1833, and the 2nd ed. Leipzig, 1834; 2nd Series, Leipzig, 1843. i. Allen ist ein Heil beschieden. Communion of Saints. First published at Pirna, 1833, as above, p. 27, in 5 stanzas of 7 lines, entitled "Unity in spirit." Another translation is:—“Salvation is a boon." By Miss Fry, 1859, p. 75. ii. Es wird mein Herz mit Freuden wach. Sunday Morning. First published at Leipzig, 1843, p. 61, in 7 st. of 4 1., entitled "Sunday Morning." Translated as:— My heart wakes with a joyful lay. This is a good and full tr. by Mrs. Findlater, in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 4th Ser. 1862, p. 82. Repeated, abridged and beginning "Awake! all hearts and joyful say," in G. S. Jellicoe's Collection, 1867, No. 26. Other trs. are: (1) "My heart awakes with holy glee." By Miss Manington, 1863, p. 143. (2) "Awake, my heart, this day of rest." By R. Massie, 1864, p. 51. (3) "My heart is bright with joy." By Lady Durand, 1873, p. 25. iii. Gottes Stadt steht festgegründet. Christian Church. First published at Leipzig, 1843, p. 97, in 6 stanzas of 12 lines, entitled "The City of God," and founded on Ps. lxxxvii. Tr. as:— By the holy hills surrounded, In full, by R.. Massie, in his Lyra Domestica, 1864, p. 82, repeated in the Wesleyan Hymn Book1875, No. 595. iv. Hochgesegnet seid ihr Boten. Foreign Missions. First pub. at Pirna, 1833, as above, p. 24, in 6 stanzas of 8 lines, entitled "The Missionaries to the Heathen." Tr. as:— Blest are ye, ye chosen bearers. In full, by R. Massie, in his Lyra Domestica, 1860, p. 95. Other trs. are: (1) "Ye messengers of Christ, By Him commissioned forth." By Miss Fry, 1859, p. 147. (2) "0 blessed are ye messengers, sent forth." By Lady Durand, 1873, p. 52. v. Ich glaube, darum rede ich. Faith. First published at Pirna, 1833, as above, p. 56, in 5 st. of 8 1., entitled " I believe." Tr. as:— I believe, and so have spoken. By R. Massie, in his Lyra Domestica, 1860, p. 55. vi. Ich höre deine Stimme. Ps. xxiii. First pub. at Pirna, 1833, as above, p. 44, in 7 st. of 8 1., entitled "The Lord is my Shepherd." Tr. as:— 1. I hear my Shepherd calling. This is a good and full tr. by R. Massie, in his Lyra Domestic, 1860, p. 44 2. Jesu, my Lord, my Shepherd. This is a very good translation, omitting st. vi., in the Catholic Apostolic Hymns for the Use of the Churches, n.d. [1868], marked as tr. by "M. E. A. 1867." Other trs. are: (1) "Shepherd of souls. Thy voice I hear, As stage." By Dr. R. Maguire, 1872, p. 166. (2) “I know Thy voice, my Shepherd.” By Lady Durand, 1873, p. 11. vii. Ich und mein Haus, wir sind bereit. Family Use. A fine hymn, founded on Joshua xxiv., 15. First pub. at Pirna, 1833, as above, p. 110, in 6 st. of 10 1., entitled “I and my house will serve the Lord." Tr. as:— I and my house are ready, Lord. In full, by R. Massie, in his Lyra Domestica, 1860, p. 103. viii. Im Osten flammt empor der gol'dne Morgen. Morning. First published at Pirna, 1833, as above, p. 91, in 7 st. of 6 1., entitled "At Morning." Tr. as:— The golden morn flames up the Eastern sky. This is a good and full tr. by Miss Winkworth, in the Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858, p. 74. Other trs. are: (1) “The golden morn is in the East arisen." By the Hon. S. R. Maxwell in his Sacred Poems, 1857, p. 114. (2) "On the far East now flames the golden Morning." By S. A. Storrs, in her Thoughts and Sketches, 1857, p. 74. (3) "Lo! in the East the golden morn appearing." By Miss Fry, 1859, p. 1. (4) “The purple morning gilds the Eastern skies." By R. Massie, 1860, p. 6. (5) "Out from the East, the golden morn is riding." By Miss Manington. 1863, p. 113. (6) “See from the East the golden morn." By Dr. R. Maguire, 1883, p. 27. ix. Kehre wieder, kehre wieder. Lent. Founded on Jer. iii. 12, 13. First pub. at Pirna, 1833, as above, p. 29, in 5 st. of 10 l., entitled " Turn again." Translated as:— 1. Return, return! Poor long-lost wanderer, home. This is a free tr. by Miss Borthwick in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 2nd Ser., 1855, p. 25. 2. Turn, poor wanderer, ere the sentence. In full, by R. Massie, in his Lyra Domestic, 1860, p. 69. Other trs. are: (1) "Turn, O turn, no more delaying." By the Hon. S. R. Maxwell, in his Sacred Poems, 1857, p. 101. (2) "Return, return, thou lost one." By Lady Durand, 1873, p. 59. (3) "Return again! return again." By J. Kelly, in his Hymns of the Present Century, 1885, p. 60. x. Meine Stund' ist noch nicht kommen. Cross and Consolation. First published at Pirna, 1833, as above, p. 37, in 7 st. of 6 1., entitled "The Lord's Hour.” Tr. as:— Jesus' hour is not yet come. This is a free tr., omitting st. v., by Miss Borthwick, in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 2nd ser. 1855, p.43. Other trs. are:—(1) "'Tis not yet the time appointed." By R. Massie, 1860, p. 47, and in Reid's Praise Book, 1872. (2) " My times, O Lord, are in Thy hand." By Dr. R. Maguire, 1883, p. 99. xi. Kimm hin, was dein ist, Gott, nimms hin. Surrender to God. This beautiful hymn was first pub. at Leipzig, 1843, as above, p. 58, in 5 st. of 10 1., entitled "Resignation." Translated as:— I give Thee back Thine own again. A good and full tr. by R. Massie, in hisLyra Domestica, 1864, p. 49. xii. 0 du, der uns begegnet. Christian Service. First pub. at Leipzig, 1843, as above, p. 92, in 4 st. of 4 1., entitled "The Blessing of the Blest." Tr. as:— 0 Thou Whose grace first found us, Whose love. In full, by R. Massie, in his Lyra Domestica, 1864. xiii. O komm, du Geist der Wahrheit. Whitsuntide. First pub. at Pirna, 1833, as above, p. 12, in 7 st. of 8 1., entitled "Whitsunday." Tr. as:— 1. Draw, Holy Spirit, nearer. In full, by R. Massie, in his Lyra Domestica, 1860, p. 27. 2. 0 come, Eternal Spirit, Of truth, diffuse Thou light. xiv. 0 Vaterhand, die mich so treu geführet. Holy Trinity. A fine hymn, first pub. at Pirna, 1833, as above, p. 128, in 3 st. of 8 1., entitled "Father, Son, and Spirit.” Tr. as:— 1. O Father-Eye, that hath so truly watch'd. By Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858, p. 63. 2. Father whose hand hath led me so securely. xv. 0 welche fromme schöne Sitte. Spiritual Conversation. First pub. at Pirna, 1833, as above, p. 101, in 6 st. of 8 1., entitled "The Blessing of Christian fellowship." Tr. as:— It is a practice greatly blest. In full, by R. Massie, in his Lyra Domestica, 1860, p. 89. xvi. 0 wie freun wir uns der Stunde. Fellowship with Christ. First pub. at Leipzig, 1843, as above, p. 3, in 6 st. of 8 1., entitled "Thou hast the words of Eternal Life". Tr. as:— Oh J how blest the hour, Lord Jesus. In full, by R. Massie, in his Lyra Domestica, 1864, p. 5. Another tr. is: "How great the joy, how blest the hour." By Dr. R. Maguire, 1872, p. 182. xvii. 0 wie manche schone Stunde. Cross and Consolation. First published at Pirna, 1833, as above, p. 130, in 10 st. of 4 1., entitled "Comfort." Tr. as:— 1. O how many hours of gladness, Hath the Lord. In full, by R. Massie, in his Lyra Domestica, 1860, p. 126, repeated, abridged, in the Book of Common Praise, 1863. 2. O how many hours of beauty. This is a good and full tr., by Mrs. Findlater, in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 4th Ser., 1862, p. 11. Another tr. is: "O how many an hour of gladness." By Lady Durand, 1873, p. 16. xviii. Sehet, sehet, welche Liebe. The Love of the Holy Trinity. First pub. at Pirna, 1833, as above, p. 19, in 3 st. of 8 1., entitled " See what Love." Tr. as:— See, O see, what love the Father. In full, by R. Massie, in his Lyra Domestica, 1860, p. 50. Other trs. are : (1) "Behold the Father's love." By Miss Fry, 1859, p. 9. (2) "See! what wondrous love, how matchless." By Miss Manington, 1863, p. 33. (3) “Behold what love the Father hath—how great." By Dr. R. Maguire, 1872, p. 68. xix. Unser Wandel ist im Himmel! Wie ein Mensch in sich versenkt. The Christian Life. First pub. at Pirna, 1833, as above, p. 75, in 7 st. of 8 1., entitled "Our Conversation is in Heaven," and suggested by Philipp. iii. 20. Tr. as:— As a traveller returning. In full, by R. Massie, in his Lyra Domestica, 1860, p. 73. This is found in two centos :— 1. Jesus, like the magnet, raises (st. iii., v., vi.) in the Methodist New Congregational Hymn Book 1863. 2. Can we have our hearts in heaven (st. v., vii.) in Adams's Church Pastorals, Boston, U.S., 1864. Another tr. is: "We are citizens of heaven." In the British Herald, January, 1866, p. 205. xx. Wandle leuchtender und schöner. Easter. First published at Pirna, 1833, as above, p. 8, in 9 st. of 8 1., entitled "Easter Festival." Tr. as:— Sun, shine forth in all thy splendour. This is a full and good tr. by R. Massie, in his Lyra Domestica, 1860, p. 24. Another tr. is: "With brighter glory, Easter Sun." By Lady Durand, 1873, p. 4. xxi. Wir sind des Herrn, wir leben, oder sterben. Life in Christ. A fine hymn founded on Rom. xiv. 8. Tr. as:— 1. We are the Lord's; His all-sufficient merit. This is a good and full tr. by C. T. Astley, in his Songs in the Night, 1860, p. 32. 2. We are the Lord's, whether we live or die. Also a good and full tr. by R. Massie, in his Lyra Domestica, 1864, p. 81. Hymns not in English common use:— xxii. Ach, welche Marter, welche Flagen. Christ's Mercy. Tr. as "O Lord, what sorrows past expression." xxiii. Das Leben wird oft trübe. Spiritual Dryness. The trs. are: (1) "How weary and how worthless this life at times appears." (2) “Our life is often dark." (3) "This life is ofttimes gloomy." (4) "Life often seems so dreary.” xxiv. Der du in der Nacht des Todes. Epiphany. The trs. are: (1) "Thou Who in the night of death." (2) "Christ whose first appearance lighted." (3) "Thou who in death's night of terror." (4) "Christ, who in Death's night of darkness." xxv. Des Christen Schmuck und Ordensband. Rejoicing in Tribulation. The trs. are: (1) "The Christian's badge of honour here." (2) "The badge the Christian wears on earth." (3) "The Christian's star of honour here." (4) "The sign of faith, and love's true token xxvi. Du schöne Lilie auf dem Feld. Trust in God. The trs. are: (1) "Thou beauteous lily of the field, Who robed." (2) "Thou beauteous lily of the field! Who hath." (3) "Thou beauteous lily of the field, Thou child to Nature dear." (4) "Sweet lily of the field, declare." (5) "Thou pretty lily of the field." (6) "Thou lovely lily of the field." xxvii. Ein lieblich Loos ist uns gefallen. The Christian's Portion. xxviii. Ein Pilger schickt sich an zur Fahrt. For the Dying. Tr. as (1) "A pilgrim stands on Jordan's brink." (2) "A pilgrim for his new abode." xxix. Erhalt' in mir den Lebenstrieb, das Sehnen. The Plant of Grace. The trs. are (1) "Maintain in me the sap of life, the yearning." (2) "Excite in me, 0 Lord, an ardent thirst.” (3) "Uphold in me a living wish and longing." xxx. Es giebt ein Lied der Lieder. The Lord's Song. The trs. are: (1) "A Song of songs there is." (2) "There is a song so thrilling." (3) "There is a song now singing." (4) "One song of songs —the sweetest." (5) "A blessed Song of songs there is." xxxi. Freuet euch der schonen Erde. Joy in the Beauties of Nature. The trs. are: (1) "0 rejoice in Nature's beauties." (2) "In the beauteous earth rejoice ye." (3) "Rejoice in the beautiful earth! For well may." (4) "Rejoice in the beautiful earth For well she," &c. (5) "Joy ye o'er this earth so lovely." (6) "Rejoice in Earth's fair beauty." xxxii. Gehe hin in Gottes Namen. Before Work. The trs. are: (1) "Cheerfully to work proceed.” (2) "In the name of God advancing." (3) "In the Name of God go forward." xxxiii. Ich nehme, was du mir bestimmst. Submission to God's Will. The trs. are: (1) "What Thou appointest I receive." (2) "Give what Thou wilt oh Lord! my grateful heart." (3) "Thy will I cheerfully obey.” xxxiv. Ich steh' in xneines Herren Hand. Trust in God. Tr. as "I place myself in Jesus' hands." xxxv. In der Angst der Welt will ich nicht klagen. Christian Life. The trs. are: (1) "Amid the world's vexations." (2) "Uncomplaining, though with care grown hoary." (3) "In this earth—life's bitter anguish.” xxxvi. 0 du, den meine Seele liebt. Holy Communion. The trs. are: (1) "0 Thou, Who holdest in my heart." (2) "Oh Thou, my loving thoughts employ.” xxxvii. Still an deinem liebevollen Herzen. The Love of Christ. The trs. are: (1) "Safe on thy paternal breast." (2) "With calm repose, Oh let me lie." (3) "Still on Thy loving heart let me repose." xxxviii. Stimm' an das Lied vom Sterben. For the Dying. Sung at hisown funeral on Sunday, Oct. 1, 1859. The trs. are: (1) "I sing of death and dying." (2) "Sing now the Song of Dying." xxxix. Vom Oelberg' wogt es nieder. Christ weeping over Jerusalem. The trs. are: (1) "Hark! for loud notes of joy." (2) "Where yonder mount, with olives clad." (3) “From Olivet the surging crowd." xl. Was macht ihr dass ihr weinet. Communion of Saints. Founded on Acts xxi. 13. The trs. are: (1) "What mean ye by this wailing." (2) "What mean ye, dearly loved ones." (3) " What mean ye thus those tears to weep." (4) "How mean ye thus by weeping." (5) "Why is it that ye're weeping." xli. Weint nicht uber Jesu Schmerzen. Repentance. The trs. are: (1) "For Jesu's agony and death." (2) "Wherefore weep we over Jesus." (3) "Weep not over Jesu's sorrow." xlii. Wie wird uns sein, wenn endlich nach dent schweren. Eternal Life. The trs. are: (1) "How shall it be with us, when we, frail mortals." (2) "O what will be the day, when won at last." (3) "What shall we be, and whither shall we go?" (4) "How will it be? when past the conflict heavy.” (5) "O what shall we be, when the conflict o'er." xliii. Winter ist es. In dem weiten Reich. Winter. The trs. are: (1) "Winter is here, and none may dare intrude." (2) "It is winter. All seems dead or dying." (3) "Winter it is! o'er the mighty kingdom." (4) "It is Winter. The wide realm of Nature.” (5) "Winter is here. In Nature's wide domain." (6) "It is winter; and the wide domain.” xliv. Wohl uns, der Vater hat uns lieb. The Love of God. Founded on Rom. viii. 32. This was, according to Koch vii. 243, one of the hymns which Spitta wrote between Easter and July, 1824, while studying the Epistle to the Romans, and which on July 7, 1824, he sent to his brother Heinrich Spitta, professor of medicine at Rostock, but Ludwig Spitta dates it "Autumn, 1833." It is tr. as "How blest are we! that God of us." xlv. Wo ist göttliches Erbarmen. The Grace of Christ. The trs. are:— (1) "Oh where doth mercy dwell." (2) "Where is mercy and compassion." (3) "Where is Divine compassion, that." xlvi. Wort des Lebens, lautre Quelle. Holy Scripture. The trs. are: (1) "Word of Life! unsullied fountain." (2) "Thou word of Life, unsullied spring!" (3) "Word of Life, eternal Fountain." (4) "Word of Life, thou fountain bright.” II. From his Nachgelassene geistliche Lieder. Leipzig, 1861. Hardly any of these have come into use in Germany; and they have either remained unknown to or have been almost entirely ignored by translators into English. We need only note two, viz.:— xlvii. Die erste Ruhestatte die die Welt. Christmas. It is tr. as "The cradle which the world has drest." xlviii. 0 Herbst, du Abendstunde. Autumn. It is tr. as “0 autumn, fair pensive evening." By Miss Borthwick, in the Family Treasury, 1864, p. 191, dated September 1864, and included Thoughtful Hour, 1867, p. 181. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) =================== Spitta, C. J. P. , p. 1076, ii. A new edition of the Psalter und Harfe (both parts), with biographical Introduction, was published at Gotha in 1890. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

Benjamin Schmolck

1672 - 1737 Person Name: Benjamin Schmolk Hymnal Number: d4 Author of "Ach Herr, lehre mich bedenken, Dass ich einmal" in Deutsches Christliches Gesangbuch der Amischen Christlichen Kirche Schmolck, Benjamin, son of Martin Schmolck, or Schmolcke, Lutheran pastor at Brauchitschdorf (now Chrόstnik) near Liegnitz in Silesia (now Poland) was born at Brauchitschdorf, Dec. 21, 1672. He entered the Gymnasium at Lauban in 1688, and spent five years there. After his return home he preached for his father a sermon which so struck the patron of the living that he made Benjamin an allowance for three years to enable him to study theology. He matriculated, at Michaelmas, 1693, at the University of Leipzig, where he came under the influence of J. Olearius, J. B. Carpzov, and others, and throughout his life retained the character of their teaching, viz. a warm and living practical Christianity, but Churchly in tone and not Pietistic. In the autumn of 1697, after completing his studies at Leipzig (during his last year there he supported himself mainly by the proceeds of occasional poems written for wealthy citizens, for which he was also, crowned as a poet), he returned to Brauchitzchdorf to help his father, and, in 1701, was ordained as his assistant. On Feb. 12, 1702, he married Anna Rosina, daughter of Christoph Rehwald, merchant in Lauban and in the end of the same year was appointed diaconus of the Friedenskirche at Schweidnitz in Silesia. As the result of the Counter-Reformation in Silesia, the churches in the principality of Schweidnitz had been taken from the Lutherans, and for the whole district the Peace of Westphalia (1648) allowed only one church (and that only of timber and clay, without tower or bells), which the Lutherans had to build at Schweidnitz, outside the walls of the town; and the three clergy attached to this church had to minister to a population scattered over some thirty-six villages, and were moreover hampered by many restrictions, e.g. being unable to communicate a sick person without a permit from the local Roman Catholic priest. Here Schmolck remained till the close of his life, becoming in 1708 archidiaconus, in 1712 senior, and in 1714 pastor primarius and inspector. Probably as the result of his exhausting labours he had a stroke of paralysis on Laetare (Mid-Lent) Sunday, 1730, which for a time laid him aside altogether, and after which he never recovered the use of his right hand. For five years more he was still able to officiate, preaching for the last time on a Fastday in 1735. But two more strokes of paralysis followed, and then cataract came on, relieved for a time by a successful operation, but returning again incurably. For the last months of his life he was confined to bed, till the message of release came to him, on the anniversary of his wedding, Feb. 12, 1737. (Koch, v. 463; Bode, p. 144; Goedeke's Grundriss, vol. iii., 1887, p. 306; sketch prefixed to Ledderhose's edition of Schmolck's Geistliche Lieder, Halle, 1857, &c.) Schmolck was well known in his own district as a popular and useful preacher, a diligent pastor, and a man of wonderful tact and discretion. It was however his devotional books, and the original hymns therein contained, that brought him into wider popularity, and carried his name and fame all over Germany. Long lists of his works and of the various editions through which many of them passed are given by Koch, Bode and Goedehe. It is rather difficult to trace the hymns, as they are copied from one book of his into another, &c. Schmolck was the most popular hymnwriter of his time, and was hailed as the "Silesian Rist," as the "second Gerhardt," &c. Nor was he altogether unworthy of such praise. It is true that he did not possess the soaring genius of Gerhardt. Nor had he even Gerhardt's concise, simple style, but instead was too fond of high-sounding expressions, of plays upon words, of far-fetched but often recurring contrasts, and in general of straining after effect, especially in the pieces written in his later years. In fact he wrote a great deal too much, and latterly without proper attention to concentration or to proportion. Besides Cantatas, occasional pieces for weddings, funerals, &c, he is the author of some 900 hymns, properly so called. These were written for all sorts of occasions, and range over the whole field of churchly, family, and individual life. Naturally they are not all alike good; and those in his first three collections are decidedly the best. A deep and genuine personal religion, and a fervent love to the Saviour, inspire his best hymns; and as they are not simply thought out but felt, they come from the heart to the heart. The best of them are also written in a clear, flowing, forcible, natural, popular style, and abound in sententious sayings, easily to be remembered. Even of these many are, however, more suited for family use than for public worship. Nevertheless they very soon came into extensive use, not only in Silesia, but all over Germany. A number of Schmolck's hymns [that] have passed into English are:— i. Der beste Freund ist in dem Himmel. Love of Jesus. First published in his Heilige Flammen (ed. 1709, p. 100), in 6 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled "The best Friend." The translation in common use is:— A faithful friend is waiting yonder. This is a good translation, omitting stanza v., as No. 293, in Kennedy, 1863. ii. Die Woche geht zum Ende. Saturday Evening. In his Andächtige Hertze, 1714, p. 116, in 10 stanzas of 8 lines, entitled "Evening Hymn," and appointed for Evening Prayer on Saturday. In the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 1158. Translated as:— The week draws near its ending. This is a good translation of stanzas i., vi., vii., x., marked as by "A. G.," as No. 81 in the Dalston Hospital Hymn Book 1848. Other trs. are: (1) “Though now the week is ending," by H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 107. (2) “The week at length is over," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 137. iii. Gott du hist selbst die Liehe. Holy Matrimony. Translated as:— O God, "Who all providest. This is a good translation, omitting stanza iii., by J. M. Sloan, as No. 312 in J. H. Wilson's Service of Praise, 1865. iv. Halleluja! Jesus lebt. Easter. In his Bochim und Elim, 1731, p. 67, in 5 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled "Hallelujah! at the grave of Jesus." In the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 296. Tr. as:— Hallelujah! Lo, He wakes. By E. Cronenwett, omitting st. iv., as No. 79 in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal 1880. Another translation is: "Hallelujah! Jesus lives! Life, immortal life, He gives." This is a full and good translation, by Miss Warner, 1858, p. 486, repeated in the Treasury of Sacred Song, Kirkwall, n.d. v. Heute mir und Morgen dir. Funeral Hymn. In his Schmuck und Asche, 1717, p. 252, in 6 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled "Daily Dying". The tr. in common use is:— Today mine, tomorrow thine. This is a good and full translation, by Miss Warner, in her Hymns of the Church Militant, 1858, p. 260. vi. Je grösser Kreuz, je näher Himmel. Cross and Consolation. In his Andächtige Hertz, 1714, p. 273, in 9 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled "Hymn of Cross and Consolation." By its sententiousness and its manifold illustrations of the power of the Cross it has been a favourite with many. Translated as:— 1. Greater the Cross, the nearer heaven. 2. The more the cross, the nearer heaven. Another translation is: "The heavier the cross, the nearer heaven," by J. D. Burns, in the Family Treasury, 1859, p. 160. vii. Jesus soil die Losung sein. New Year. The translation in common use is:— Jesus shall the watchword he. Another translation is: "Jesu's name shall be our watchword," by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868, p. 689. viii. Licht vom Licht, erleuchte mich. Sunday Morning. Translated as:— Light of Light, enlighten me. This is a very good tr. omitting stanza vii., by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858, p. 66, and thence in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 17. Other translations are: (1) "Light of Light! illumine me," by H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 6. (2) "O thou blessed Light of Light," by Miss Dunn, 1857, p. 74. ix. Meinen Jesum lass ich nicht, Ach was wollt ich hessres haben. Love to Christ. Translated as:— I'll with Jesus never part. This is a translation of st. i., ii., iv., as stanzas iii.-v. of No. 378 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789. In the ed. of 1886, No. 452 (see p. 614, i.), the part from Schmolck begins, "He is mine and I am His" (the translation of stanza ii.). Another tr. is: "I'll not leave Jesus—-never, never," by Miss Warner, 1858, p. 509. x. Mein Gott, ich weiss wohl dass ich sterbe. For the Dying. Translated as:— My God! I know that I must die, My mortal. Other trs. are: (1) "That I shall die full well 1 know," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 232). (2) "My God! I know full well that I must die," by Miss Warner, 1858, p. 344. (3) "My God, I know that I must die; I know," by G. Moultrie, in his Espousals of S. Dorothea, 1870. xi. Mein Jesus lebt! was soil ich sterben. Easter. Translated as:— My Saviour lives; I shall not perish. xii. 0 wie fröhlich, o wie selig. Eternal Life. Translated as:— Oh how joyous, oh how blessed. Another tr. is: "Oh, how blest beyond our telling." xiii. Schmückt das Fest mit Maien. Whitsuntide. Translated as:— Come, deck our feast today. xiv. Thut mir auf die schöne Pforte. Sunday. Translated as:— 1. Open now thy gates of beauty. This is a good tr., omitting stanza iii., vii., by Miss Winkworth, in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 15. 2. Open wide the gates of beauty. This is a translation of stanzas i., ii., iv., vi.-vii., by H. L. Hastings, dated 1885, as No. 1076, in his Songs of Pilgrimage, 1886. Another tr. is: "Throw the glorious gates wide open," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 146. xv. Weine nicht, Gott lebet noch. Cross and Consolation. Tr. as:— "Weep not,-—Jesus lives on high. Another tr. is: "Weep not, for God, our God, doth live," by Dr. R. Maguire, 1883, p. 59. xvi. Willkommen, Held im Streite. Easter. The translation in common use is:— Welcome Thou victor in the strife. This is a good translation omitting st. ii.—iv., by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 1st Ser., 1855, p. 91. Hymns not in English common use:-- xvii. Ach wenn ich dich, mein Gott, nur habe. Love to God. Founded on Ps. lxxiii. 25, 26. Translated as "My God, if I possess but Thee," by G. Moultrie, in his Espousals of S. Dorothea, 1870. xviii. An Gott will ich gedenken. Remembering God's Love and Care. In his Heilige Flammen (ed. 1707, p. 59; ed. 1709, p. 131), in 6 stanzas of 8 lines, and Burg's Gesang-Buch, Breslau, 1746, No. 112. Translated as "My God will I remember," by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868. xix. Der Sabbath ist vergangen. Sunday Evening. Tr. as "The Sabbath now is over," by Dr. H. Mills, 1856, p. 226. xx. Du angenehmer Tag. Sunday. In his Lustige Sabbath, 1712, p. 1, in 8 stanzas of 6 lines. Tr. as “Thou ever welcome day," by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868, p. 688. xxi. Endlich, endlich, muss es doch. Cross and Consolation. Translated as "Yes, at last, our God shall make," in the Christian Examiner, Boston, U.S., Sept., 1860, p. 251. xxii. Gedenke mein, mein Gott, gedenke mein. For the Dying. Translated as "Remember me, my God! remember me," by Miss Borthwick, in Hymns from the Land of Luther 1854, p. 9. xxiii. Geh, müder Leib, zu deiner Euh. Evening. Translated as "Go, wearied body, to thy rest," by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868. In his Lustige Sabbath, 1712, p. 35, in 10 stanzas of 6 lines, and Burg’s Gesang-Buch, Breslau, 1746, No. 403. Translated as "King, to Jews and Gentiles given," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845. xxiv. Gott der Juden,Gott der Heiden. Epiphany. Translated as “King, to Jews and Gentiles given,” by Dr. H. Mills, 1845. xxv. Gott lebt, wie kann ich traurig sein. Trust in God. Translated as "God lives! Can I despair," by Miss Warner, 1869, p. 44. xxvi. Gott mit uns, Immanuel. New Year. Translated as "God with us! Immanuel, Open with the year before us," by Dr. R. P. Dunn, in Sacred Lyrics from the German, Philadelphia, U.S., 1859, p. 166. xxvii. Hier ist Immanuel! New Year. Translated as "Here is Immanuel!" by Miss Manington, 1864, p. 24. xxviii. Hilf, Heifer, hilf! ich muss verzagen. Cross and Consolation. Translated as "Help, Saviour, help, I sink, I die,” in the Monthly Packet, vol. xviii., 1859, p. 664. xix. Ich habe Lust zu scheiden. For the Dying. Tr. as "Weary, waiting to depart," by Mrs. Findlater, in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 1855, p 130. xxx. Ich sterbe täglich, und mein Leben. For the Dying. Translated as "Both life and death are kept by Thee" (st. iv.), by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868, p. 689. xxxi. Mein Gott, du hast mich eingeladen. Sunday. Translated as "My God, Thou hast the invite given," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 150. xxxii. Mein Gott! du wohnst in einem Lichte. Holy Scripture. Translated as "In glory bright, O God, Thou dwellest," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845. xxxiii. Mein Gott, ich klopf an deine Pforte. Supplication. Tr.Translated as "given as "Mein Gott, mein Erstes und mein Alles." Translated as "My God! the Source of all my blessing," in the British Herald, August, 1866, p. 312; repeated in Reid's Praise Book, 1872. xxxv. Mein Gott, weil ich in meinem Leben. The ChristiaWho, Lord, has any good whatever," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845, p. 91. xxxiv. Mein Gott, mein Alles Uber Alles. Trust in God. Sometimes n Life. Translated as "Most High! with reverence to fear Thee," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845, p. 114.). xxxvi. Nun hab ich überwunden; Zu guter Nacht, o Welt. For the Dying. Translated as "Now soon I shall have conquer'd," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 87. xxxvii. Seht welch ein Mensch ist das. Passiontide. The translations are (1) "See, what a man is this! How tearful is His glance," by J. Kelly, in the British Messenger, Feb., 1S68; repeated in the Family Treasury, 1868, p. 691. (2) "See what a man is this, O glances," by Miss Warner, 1869, p. 32. xxxviii. Sei getreu bis in den Tod. Christian Faithfulness. Translated as "Be thou faithful unto death! Let not troubles nor distresses," by R. Massie, in the Day of Rest, 1878, vol. ix. p. 219. xxxix. Theures Wort aus Gottes Munde. Holy Scripture. Translated as "Word by God the Father spoken," by Miss Manington, 1863. xl. Was Gott thut das ist wohlgethan! Er giebt und nimmt auch wieder. On the Death of a Child. The trs. are (1) "What God does is well done, "Who takes what He gave," by W. Graham, in his The Jordan and the Rhine, London, 1854, p. 251. (2) "Whatever God doth is well done, He gives, &c," by J. Kelly, in the Family Treasury, 1868, p. 688. xli. Wer will mich von der Liebe scheiden. Faith. Translated as "Who can my soul from Jesus sever," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 39. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Christian Fürchtegott Gellert

1715 - 1769 Person Name: Christian Fuerchtegott Gellert Hymnal Number: d96 Author of "Meine Lebenszeit verstreicht, stuendlich eil ich" in Deutsches Christliches Gesangbuch der Amischen Christlichen Kirche Gellert, Christian Fürchtegott, son of Christian Gellert, pastor at Hainichen in the Saxon Harz, near Freiberg, was born at Hainichen, July 4, 1715. In 1734 he entered the University of Leipzig as a student of theology, and after completing his course acted for some time as assistant to his father. But then, as now, sermons preached from manuscript were not tolerated in the Lutheran Church, and as his memory was treacherous, he found himself compelled to try some other profession. In 1739 he became domestic tutor to the sons of Herr von Lüttichau, near Dresden, and in 1741 returned to Leipzig to superintend the studies of a nephew at the University. He also resumed his own studies. He graduated M.A. 1744; became in 1745 private tutor or lecturer in the philosophical faculty; and was in 1751 appointed extraordinary professor of philosophy, lecturing on poetry and rhetoric, and then on moral philosophy. An ordinary professorship offered to him in 1761 he refused, as he did not feel strong enough to fulfil its duties, having been delicate from a child, and after 1752 suffering very greatly from hypochondria. He died at Leipzig, Dec. 13, 1769 (Koch, vi. 263-277; Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, viii. 544-549, &c). As a professor, Gellert was most popular, numbering Goethe and Lessing among his pupils, and won from his students extraordinary reverence and affection, due partly to the warm interest he took in their personal conduct and welfare. In his early life he was one of the contributors to the Bremer Beiträge; and was one of the leaders in the revolt against the domination of Gottsched and the writers of the French school. His Fables (1st Ser. 1746; 2nd 1748), by their charm of style, spirit, humour and point, may justly be characterised as epoch-making, won for him universal esteem and influence among his contemporaries of all classes, and still rank among the classics of German literature. As a hymnwriter he also marks an epoch; and while in the revival of churchly feeling the hymns of the Rationalistic period of 1760 to 1820 have been ignored by many recent compilers, yet the greatest admirers of the old standard hymns have been fain to stretch their area of selection from Luther to Gellert. He prepared himself by prayer for their composition, and selected the moments when his mental horizon was most unclouded. He was distinguished by deep and sincere piety, blameless life, and regularity in attendance on the services of the Church. His hymns are the utterances of a sincere Christian morality, not very elevated or enthusiastic, but genuine expressions of his own feelings and experiences; and what in them he preached he also put in practice in his daily life. Many are too didactic in tone, reading like versifications of portions of his lectures on morals, and are only suited for private use. But in regard to his best hymns, it may safely be said that their rational piety and good taste, combined with a certain earnestness and pathos, entitle them to a place among the classics of German hymnody. They exactly met the requirements of the time, won universal admiration, and speedily passed into the hymnbooks in use over all Germany, Roman Catholic as well as Lutheran. Two of Gellert's hymns are noted under their own first lines, viz., "Jesus lebt, mit ihm auch ich," and "Wie gross ist des All-mächtgen Güte." The following have also passed into English, almost all being taken from his Geistliche Oden und Lieder, a collection of 54 hymns first published at Leipzig, 1757, and which has passed through very numerous editions:— I. Hymns in English common use: i. An dir allein, an dir hab ich gesündigt. Lent. 1757, p. 102, in 6 stanzas of 4 lines, entitled "Hymn of Penitence." In Zollikofer's Gesange-Buch, 1766, and the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S., ed. 1863, No. 499. Translated as:— Against Thee only have I sinn'd, I own it. A good and full version, by Miss Wink worth, as No. 42 in her Chorale Book for England, 1863. Another translation is:— "Against Thee, Lord, Thee only my transgression," by N. L. Frothingham, 1870, p. 241. ii. Dies ist der Tag, den Gott gemacht. Christmas. One of his best and most popular hymns. 1757, p. 72, in 11 stanzas of 4 lines, repeated in the Berlin Gesang-Buch, 1765, No. 55, and the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S. ed. 1863, No. 154. Translated as:— This is the day the Lord hath made, O'er all the earth. A translation of stanzas i.-iii., x., by Miss Borthwick, as No. 22 in Dr. Pagenstecher's Collection, 1864, and included in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 1884, p. 256. Other trs. are:—(1) "This is the day which God ordains," by Dr. G. Walker, 1860, p. 27. (2) "This day shall yet by God's command," in the Family Treasury, 1811, p. 278. iii. Für alle Güte sei gepreist. Evening. 1757, p. 85, in 4 stanzas of 6 lines, included in Zollikofer's Gesang-Buch 1766, No. 78, and the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S., ed. 1863, No. 1160. Translated as:— To Father, Son, and Spirit praise. A good and full translation by A. T. Russell, as No. 7 in his Psalms & Hymns, 1851. Another translation is: — "For all Thy kindness laud I Thee," by H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 96. iv. Gott ist mein Lied. Praise. On God's Might and Providence. 1757, p. 78, in 15 st. of 5 1. In the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S.., ed. 1863, No. 24. Translated as:— God is my song, His praises I'll repeat, A free translation of stanzas i.-v., as No. 94 in Sir John Bowring's Hymns, 1825. Repeated, omitting stanza ii., as No. 114 in Dale's English Hymn Book, 1875. Other translations are:— (1) “Of God I sing," by Dr. H. Mills, 1856, p. 11. (2) "God is my song, With sovereign," by N. L. Frothingham, 1870, p. 243. v. Wenn ich, o Schöpfer, deine Macht. Praise. This fine hymn of Praise for Creation and Providence was first published 1757, p. 62, in 6 stanzas of 7 lines. In the Berlin Gesang-Buch, 1765, No. 25, and Berlin Geistliche Lieder S.ed. 1863, No. 72. Translated as:—- Thou Great First Cause! when of Thy skill. In full in Dr. H. Mills's Horae Germanicae, 1845 (1856, p. 5). Stanzas ii., iii., v., vi., altered and beginning, "The earth, where'er I turn mine eye," are in the American Lutheran General Synod's Collection, 1852. Other trs. are:— (1) "When, O my dearest Lord, I prove," by Miss Dunn, 1857, p. 80. (2) "Creator! when I see Thy might," in Madame de Pontes's Poets and Poetry of Germany, 1858, v. i. p. 472. (3) "When I, Creator, view Thy might," by Miss Manington, 1863. vi. Wer Gottes Wort nicht halt, und spricht. Faith in Works. This didactic hymn on Faith proved by Works, was first published 1757, p. 49, in 5 stanzas of 6 lines. In Zollikofer's Gesang-Buch, 1766, and the Berlin Geistliche Lieder S. ed. 1863, No. 72. Translated as:— Who keepeth not God's Word, yet saith. A good and full translation by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858, p. 161. A greatly altered version of stanzas ii.—v., beginning, "True faith in holy life will shine," was included as No. 418 in Kennedy, 1863, and repeated in the Ibrox Hymnal 1871, J. L. Porter's Collection 1876, and others. II. Hymns not in English common use: vii. Auf Gott, und nicht auf meinen Rath. Trust in God's Providence. 1757, p. 134, in 6 stanzas. Translated as: (1) "Rule Thou my portion, Lord, my skill," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 164). (2) "On God and on no earthly trust," by J. D. Burns, in his Remains, 1869. viii. Auf, schicke dich. Christmas. 1757, p. 109, in 1 stanza. Translated as, "Come, tune your heart," by Miss Cox, 1841, p. 17 (1864, p. 39). ix. Dein Heil, o Christ! nicht zu verscherzen. Prayer. 1757, p. 6, in 14 stanzas of 8 lines. In J. A. Schlegel's Geistliche Gesänge, 3rd Ser., 1772, p. 193, recast as "Zu deinem Gotte beten," in 5 stanzas of 12 lines; and this in the Kaiserwerth Lieder-Buch für Kleinkinderschulen, 1842, No. 208, appears "Zu Gott im Himmel beten," in 8 stanzas of 4 lines. The 1842 was translated as, "O how sweet it is to pray," by Mrs. Bevan, 1859, p. 148. x. Der Tag ist wieder hin, und diesen Theil des Lebens. Evening. 1757, p. 13, in 10 stanzas, as "Self-Examination at Eventide." Translated as,"Another day is ended," by Miss Warner, 1869 (1871, p. 9). xi. Du klagst, und fühlest die Beschwerden. Contentment. 1757, p. 91, in 8 stanzas. Translated as "Thy wounded spirit feels its pain," by Dr. B. Maguire, 1883, p. 153. xii. Erinnre dich, mein Geist, erfreut. Easter. 1757, p. 27, in 13 stanzas. Translated as, "Awake, my soul, and hail the day," in Dr. J. D. Lang's Aurora Australis, Sydney, 1826, p. 43. xiii. Er ruft der Sonn, und schafft den Mond. New Year. 1757, p. 154, in 6 stanzas. In the Berlin Gesang-Buch, 1765, No. 233, as "Gott ruft." Translated as, “Lord, Thou that ever wast and art," in the British Magazine, Jan., 1838, p. 36. xiv. Gott, deine Güte reicht so weit. Supplication. 1757, p. 1, in 4 stanzas, founded on 1 Kings iii. 5-14. The translations are: (1) "O God, Thy goodness doth extend, Far as," by Dr. J. D. Lang, 1826, p. 10. (2) "Behold! Thy goodness, oh my God," by Miss Fry, 1845, p. 78. xv. Gott ist mein Hort. Holy Scripture. 1757, p. 70, in 8 stanzas. Translated as, "I trust the Lord, Upon His word," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 23). xvi. Herr, der du mir das Leben. Evening. 1757, p. 121, in 5 stanzas. Translated as, "By Thee, Thou Lord of Heaven," by H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 97. xvii. Herr, starke mich, dein Leiden su bedenken. Passiontide. 1757, p. 123, in 22 stanzas. Translated as, "Clothe me, oh Lord, with strength! that I may dwell” by Miss Fry, 1859, p. 153. xviii. Ich hab in guten Stunden. For the Sick. 1757, p. 128, in 6 stanzas. [See the Story of a Hymn, in the Sunday at Home for Sept., 1865.] Translated as: (1) “I have had my days of blessing," by Mrs. Findlater, in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 1855, p. 60. (2) "Once, happy hours with blessings crowned," by A. B. H., in the Day of Rest, 1877, p. 405. xix. Ich komme, Herr, und suche dich. Holy Communion. 1757, p. 89, in 5 stanzas. The translations are: (1) "I come, 0 Lord, and seek for Thee," by Miss Manington, 1863, p. 14. (2) “Weary and laden with my load, I come," by Dr. B. Maguire, 1872, p. 178. xx. Ich komme vor dein Angesicht. Supplication. 1757, p. 140. in 13 stanzas. The translations are: (1) "Great God, I bow before Thy face," by Dr. J. D. Lang, 1826, p. 23. (2) “Now in Thy presence I appear," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 137). xxi. Mein erst Gefühl sei Preis und Dank. Morning. 1757, p. 55, in 12 stanzas. Translated as, "I bless Thee, Lord, Thou God of might," beginning with st. vi., by H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 56. xxii. Nach einer Prüfung kurzer Tage. Eternal Life. 1757, p. 158, in 12 stanzas, as "The Consolation of Eternal Life." Though hardly a hymn for congregational use and too individualised, it has been a very great favourite in Germany. In the Berlin Gesang-Buch, 1765, 132, and the Berlin Geistliche Liedersegen, ed. 1863, No. 1483. The translations are: (1) "A few short days of trial past," in Miss Knight's Prayers and Hymns from the German, 1812 (1832, p. 107). (2) "A few short hours of transient joy," by Dr. J. D. Lang, 1826, p. 123. (3) “When these brief trial-days are past," by J. Sheppard, 1857, p. 98. (4) “A few short days of trial here,” by Miss Burlingham, in the British Herald, July 1865, p. 98. (5) "Our few short years of trial o'er," by Dr. J. Guthrie, 1869, d. 124. (6) “When these brief trial-days are spent," by Miss Winkworth, 1869, p. 318. (7) "A few more days, a few more years," by Dr. R. Maguire, 1883, p. 165. xxiii 0 Herr, mein Gott! durch den ich bin und lebe. Resignation to the will of God. 1757, p. 152. in 7 st. Translated as, "In Thee, my God, I live and move," by Dr. R. Maguire, 1883, p. 113. xxiv. So hoff’ ich denn mit festem Muth . Assurance of the Grace of God. 1757, p. 115, in 4 stanzas. The translations are: (1) "Firm is my hope of future good," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 188). (2) “In Thee, O Lord, my hope hath stood," by Dr. R. Maguire, 1872. zzv. Was ists dast ich mich quäle. Patience. 1757, p. 17, in 7 stanzas. The translations are: (1) "O foolish heart, be still," by Miss Warner, 1858 (1861, p. 452), repeated in Bishop Ryle's Collection, 1860, No. 181 (2) “What billows these that o'er thee roll," by Dr. R. Maguire, 1872. xxvi. Wie sicher lebt der Mensch, der Staub. For the Dying. 1757, p. 149, in 14 stanzas. Translated as, "How heedless, how secure is man!" by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 238). One or two recasts from Gellert's Lehrgedichte und Erzählungen, Leipzig, 1754, came into German common use, and one has passed into English, viz.:— xxvii. Mensch, der du Christus schmähst, was ist in ihrer Lehre. Love to Mankind. 1754, pp. 27-56, being a poem entitled “The Christian." A recast from portions of this made by J. S. Diterich, beginning "Gieb mir, O Gott, ein Herz," in 9 stanzas, appears as No. 219 in the Berlin Gesang-Buch, 1765; and has been translated as "Grant me, O God! a tender heart," by Miss Knight, 1812 (1832, p. 97). [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Philipp Friedrich Hiller

1699 - 1769 Hymnal Number: d108 Author of "Nur fuer dieses leben sorgen" in Deutsches Christliches Gesangbuch der Amischen Christlichen Kirche Hiller, Philipp Friedrich, son of Johann Jakob Hiller, pastor at Mühlhausen on the the Enz, Württemberg, was born at Mühlhausen, Jan. 6, 1699. He was educated at the clergy training schools at Denkendorf (under J. A. Bengel) and Maulbronn, and the University of Tübingen (M.A. 1720). His first clerical appointment was as assistant at Brettach, near Neckarsulm, 1724-27. He afterwards held similar posts at Hessigheim and elsewhere, and was also, from 1729-31, a private tutor at Nürnberg. He was then, on St. Bartholomew's Day, 1732, instituted as pastor of Neckargröningen, on the Neckar, near Marbach. In 1736 he became pastor of his native place, and in 1748 pastor at Steinheim, near Heidenheim. In his third year of residence at Steinheim he lost his voice, and had to employ an assistant to preach. He died at Steinheim, April 24, 1769. (Koch, v. 107-126; Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, xii. 425-426, &c.) Of Hiller’s hymns the best appeared in:— (1) Arndt's Paradiss-Gartlein…..in teutsche Lieder, Nürnberg, N.D. [the copy in Berlin has a frontispiece dated 1730]. This was written during the time he was tutor at Nürnberg. P. Gerhardt had founded the fine hymn "O Jesu Christ, mein schönstes Licht," (q.v.) on one of the prayers in the volume of devotions which Johann Arndt had published, 1612, under the title of Paradies-Gärtlein; and Gerhardt's example led Hiller to think of turning the whole of these prayers into hymns. The book is in four parts, and contains 301 hymns, 297 being founded on Arndt and four original. (2) Geistliches Liederkästlein, Stuttgart, 1762, and a second series, Stuttgart, 1767. Each series contains 366 short hymns, one for each day of the year. A complete reprint of these and the other hymns of Hiller (1075 in all) wased. by C. C. E. Ehmann in 1844 (2nd ed. 1858). Hiller is the most productive and most important of the earlier hymnwriters of Württemberg; and is the poetical exponent of the practical theology of his friend J. A. Bengel. The hymns of his Paradiss-Gärtlein, while clear and Scriptural, are decidedly spun out (see No. xii. below). His Liederkästlein, contains the hymns of his riper years, and reveals a depth of spiritual wisdom, an almost proverbial conciseness, an adaptation to console and direct in the most diverse events of life, and the most varied experiences of the soul, a suitability as a manual for daily devotion, and a simple popularity of style that speedily endeared it to the pious in Southern Germany. It has passed through many editions in Germany, while colonists (especially from Württemberg) have carried it from thence wherever they went. It is said, e.g., that when a German colony in the Caucasus was attacked by a hostile Circassian tribe some fifty years ago the parents cut up their copies of the Liederkästlein and divided the leaves among their children as they were being torn from them into slavery. The use of Hiller's hymns in Germany has principally been in the hymnbooks of Württemberg, and, through J. J. Bambach's Haus Gesang-Buch, 1735, in Hannover. The following have passed into English:— I. Hymns in English common use: i. Herr über Leben und der Tod. Cross and Consolation. 1730, pt. iii. p. 332, founded on Arndt's Prayer, 26 (28) of Class iii. The part translated is stanzas viii.-xiv., "Herr, meine Burg, Herr Zebaoth," which is founded on the fourth part of the third section of Arndt's Prayer. The text is in Ehmann's Hiller, Nos. 885, 886. Translated as:— 0 God of Hosts! 0 mighty Lord, a translation of stanzas viii., xiii., xiv., signed "F. C. C.," as No. 162 in Dr. Pagenstecher's Collection, 1864. ii. Mein Gott in deine Hände. For the Dying. Liederkästlein, pt. ii., 1767, for August 3, in 9 stanzas of 4 lines, founded on Ps. xxxi. 6. In Ehmann, No. 986, and in Knapp's Evangelischer Lieder-Schatz, 1837 and 1865. Translated as:— My God, to Thee I now commend, a good translation of stanzas i., iii., iv., vi., viii., ix., by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 1st Ser., 1855, p. 245. In her 2nd ed., 1856, she substituted a translation of st. vii. for that of stanza vi. The text of 1856 is in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 194, and in the Ohio Evangelical Lutheran Hymnal, 1880; and the text of 1855 in the Pennsylvania Lutheran Church Book, 1868. Another translation is: "My God, within Thy hand," by Miss Warner, 1858, p. 480. iii. Mein Hers, du mustt im Himmel sein. Eternal Life. Liederkästlein, p. ii., 1767, for Jan. 26, in 4 stanzas of 7 lines, founded on St. Matt. vi. 21. In Ehmann, No. 639, and Knapp's Evangelischer Lieder-Schatz, 1837. Translated as :— Aspire, my heart, on high to live, in full, by Dr. H. Mills, in his Horae Germanicae, 1845 (1856, p. 86), repeated, omitting stanzas iv., as No. 220 in the American Lutheran General Synod's Collection, 1850-52. iv. Wir warten dein, o Gottet Sehn. Second Advent. Liederkästlein, pt. ii., 1767, for Jan. 24, in 4 stanzas of 8 lines, founded on 1 Thess. i. 9, 10. In Ehmann, No. 1041, and the Württemberg Gesang-Buch, 1842, No. 640. Translated as:-— We wait for Thee, all glorious One, a good and full translation by J. D. Burns, in the Family Treasury, 1859, pt. ii. p. 111, and his Remains, 1869, p. 264. Included in the Christian Hymn Book, Cincinnati, 1865, and in H. L. Hastings's Songs of Pilgrimage, 1886. Another translation is: "We wait for Thee, O Son of God," in the British Herald, April, 1866, p. 252, and Reid's Praise Book, 1872. This follows the altered form in C. B. Garve's Christliche Gesänge, 1825. II. Hymns not in English common use: v. Abgrund wesentlicher Liebe. Love of God. 1730, pt. ii. p. 25, founded on Prayer 4 in Class II. of Arndt, which is "Thanksgiving for the Love of God, and prayer for it." Translated as, "Thou fathomless Abyss of Love," by Miss Winkworth, 1869, p. 281. vi. Angenehmes Krankenbette. For the Sick. Liederkästlein, 1762, p. 338, for Dec. 3, in 3 stanzas, founded on St. Luke v. 18. Translated as, "Bed of Sickness! thou art sweet," by Miss Winkworth, 1869, p. 283. vii. Betet an, verlorne Sünder. Lent. Liederkästlein, 1762, p. 43, for Feb. 18, in 3 stanzas, founded on St. Matt, xviii. 14. Translated as, "Sinners, pray! for mercy pleading," by Dr. H. Mills, 1856, p. 50. viii. Das Lamm, am Kreuzesstamme. For the Dying. Liederkästlein, pt. ii., 1767, for Feb. 12, in 8 stanzas, founded on Acts vii. 59. In the Württemberg Gesang-Buch, 1842, No. 609, altered to “Der Hirt, am Kreuz gestorben." This form is translated as, "The Shepherd by His passion," by J. D. Burns, in the Family Treasury, 1859, pt. ii. p. 61, and his Remains, 1869, p. 266. ix. Die Liebe darf wohl weinen. Burial of the Dead. Liederkästlein, 1762, p. 286, for Oct. 12, in 7 stanzas, founded on l Thess. iv. 13. Translated as, "Love over the departed," by J. D. Burns in his Remains, 1869, p. 253. x. Die Welt kommt einst zusammen. Second Advent. Liederkästlein, pt. ii., 1767, for Jan. 2, in 5 stanzas, founded on 2 Cor. v. 10. Translated as, "The world shall yet be cited," by J. D. Burns in the Family Treasury, 1859, pt. ii. P. 111, and his Remains, 1869, p. 263. xi. Herr, meine Leibeshütte. For the Dying. Liederkästlein, pt. ii., 1767, for Feb. 18, in 8 stanzas, founded on 2 Peter, i. 14. The translations are: (l) "Lord, my house of clay," by Miss Warner, 1858, p. 605. (2) "My fleshly house is sinking now," by Dr. G. Walker, 1860, p. 102. xii. Mein Jesus sitst zur rechten Hand. Ascensiontide. 1730, pt iii. p. 408, as stanzas 118-125 of the hymn on Arndt's prayer 27 (29) in Class III. This prayer is a long paraphrase of the Apostles' Creed. Translated as, "Our Jesus now at God's right hand," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 330). xiii. Singet Gott, denn Gott ist liebe. The Love of God. Liederkästlein, 1762, p. 51, for Feb. 20, in 3 stanzas, founded on 1 John iv. 16. The translations are: (1) "God is love—-then sing His praises," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 16). (2) "God is love, sing loud before Him," by J. D. Burns in his Remains, 1869, p. 231. xiv. Singt doch unserm König. Ascensiontide. Liederkästlein, 1762, p. 328, for Nov. 23, in 3 stanzas, founded on Ps. xcvi. 10. Translated as, “Laud your King and Saviour," by J. Sheppard in bis Foreign Sacred Lyre. 1857, p. 94. xv. Untheilbare Dreifaltigkeit. Trinity Sunday. 1730, pt. ii. p. 226, founded on Arndt’s prayer 25 in Class II., entitled “Thanksgiving for the revelation of the Holy Trinity." The translation is from the recast of st. vi.-xii. made by J. S. Diterich for the Berlin Gesang-Buch, 1765, No. 51, and beginning "Lob, Ehre, Preis und Dank sel dir." Translated as, "Love, honour, thanks, to Thee we raise," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 110). xvi. Was freut mich noch wenn du's nicht bist. Joy in God. Liederkästlein, 1762, for June 20, in 2 stanzas, founded on Ps. xliii. 4. Translated as, "What earthly joy can fill my heart," by R. Massie in the British Herald, Nov. 1865, p. 175. xvii. Wer ausharrt bis ans Ende. Cross and Consolation. Liederkästlein, pt. ii., 1767, for May 19, in 4 stanzas, founded on St. Matt. xxiv. 13. Translated as,"He who to death maintaineth," by J. D. Burns in his Remains, 1869, p. 261. xviii. Wer kann dein Thun begreifen. God's Power. Liederkästlein, 1762, p. 18, for Jan. 18, in 3 stanzas, founded on Is. xlv. 7. Translated as, "Who, Lord, Thy deeds can measure," by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 15). [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) =============================== Hiller, Philipp F., p. 524, ii. His hymn "Gottes Sohn, in Fleisch gekleidet" (Christmas), from his Liederkastlein, 1762, is translation by Dr. Loy, in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880, as "God in human flesh appearing." --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

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