For stanza 1, the disobedience of Adam and the immediate cost is documented in Genesis 3:14-24. The full eventual cost, and God’s deliverance, is explained by Paul in Romans 5:12-21.
Stanza 2 refers to the Ark of mercy that rode the flood, a reference to the narrative in Genesis 6:1-8.
Stanza 3’s reference to the “little child” and all that was regained through him is found in Matthew 1 and 2, Luke 2, and a deeper explanation of his significance in John 1.
The “new Jerusalem” referred to in stanza 5 is clarified in Revelation 21.
This song speaks about the fall into sin and the resulting sinfulness of the human race. God’s people are called to be aware of the fall. Belgic Confession, Article 14 summarizes the fall and its impact with these words: “They subjected themselves willingly to sin and consequently to death and the curse...”
Heidelberg Catechism, Lord’s Day 3, Question and Answer 7 points out that “this fall has so poisoned our nature that we are all conceived and born in a sinful condition.” Yet, God’s people are also called to know about God’s grace, which is freely given, despite the depravity of the world. Our World Belongs to God, paragraph 14 claims that “we prove each day apart from grace that we are guilty sinners...”