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Nicolaus Ludwig, Graf von Zinzendorf

1700 - 1760 Person Name: Nicolas Zinzendorf Author of "I thirst, thou wounded Lamb of God" in The Evangelical Hymnal Zinzendorf, Count Nicolaus Ludwig, the founder of the religious community of Herrnhut and the apostle of the United Brethren, was born at Dresden May 26, 1700. It is not often that noble blood and worldly wealth are allied with true piety and missionary zeal. Such, however, was the case with Count Zinzendorf. Spener, the father of Pietism, was his godfather; and Franke, the founder of the famous Orphan House, in Halle, was for several years his tutor. In 1731 Zinzendorf resigned all public duties and devoted himself to missionary work. He traveled extensively on the Continent, in Great Britain, and in America, preaching "Christ, and him crucified," and organizing societies of Moravian brethren. John Wesley is said to have been under obligation to Zinzendorf for some ideas on singing, organization of classes, and Church government. Zinzendorf was the author of some two thousand hymns. Many of them are of little worth, but a few are very valuable, full of gospel sweetness and holy fervor. He died at Herrnhut May 6, 1760. —Hymn Writers of the Church by Charles Nutter ================ Zinzendorf, Nicolaus Ludwig, Count von, was born at Dresden, May 26, 1700; was educated at the Paedagogium at Halle (1710-1716), and at the University of Wittenberg (1716-1719); became Hof-und Justizrath at the Saxon court at Dresden in the autumn of 1721; received a license to preach from the Theological Faculty of the University of Tubingen in 1734; was consecrated Bishop of the Moravian Brethren's Unity at Berlin, May 10, 1737; and died at Herrnhut, May 9, 1760. An adequate sketch of the life and labours of this remarkable man would far exceed the limits of our space. The details of his life are fully given in his Leben, by A. G. Spangenberg, 8 vols., Barby, 1772-75 (English version, abridged, by Samuel Jackson, London, 1838); and good sketches, with references to the fuller biographies, will be found in Koch, v. 248, Herzog's Real-Encyklopädie, xvii. 513, &c. The English reader may also consult T. Kübler's Historical Notes to the Lyra Germanica, 1865, p. 107; Josiah Miller's Singers and Songs, 1869, p. 160; Miss Winkworth's Christian Singers of Germany, 1869, p. 305, &c. It is impossible to speak of Zinzendorf apart from the religious Communion of which he was the Second Founder. Zinzendorf's first hymn was written at Halle in 1712, and his last at Herrnhut, May 4, 1760. Between these dates he wrote more than 2000 hymns. He himself published an edition of his poems as his Teutsche Gedichte at Herrnhut, 1735 (2nd ed., Barby, 1766), but this only contains 128 hymns. The fullest representation of them is in Albert Knapp's Geistliche Gedichte des Graf en von Zinzendorf, published at Stuttgart in 1845 (hereafter, in this article, referred to as Knapp, 1845). This contains 770 pieces, arranged in three books, with an introduction and a biographical sketch by Knapp. In preparing this edition Knapp had access to much unpublished material in the archives at Herrnhut, and found there many of the hymns in Zinzendorf's autograph. But too much of the labour he bestowed thereon was spent in endeavouring, not so much to reconstruct the text from the original sources, as to modernise it. In various instances the hymns are altogether rewritten, so that the form in which they appear is not that in which, as a matter of fact, Zinzendorf did write them, but that in which he might have written them had he been Albert Knapp, and lived in the year of grace 1845. So much is this the case, that comparatively few of the hymns are given in Knapp's edition in their original form. If not altered they are often either abridged or else combined with others. The keynote of Zinzendorf's hymns, and of his religious character, was a deep and earnest personal devotion to and fellowship with the crucified Saviour. This is seen even in his worst pieces, where it is his perverted fervour that leads him into objectionable familiarity with sacred things both in thought and in expression. If his self-restraint had been equal to his imaginative and productive powers, he would have ranked as one of the greatest German hymnwriters. As it is, most even of his best pieces err in some way or other, for if they are reverent and in good taste, they are apt to lack concentration and to be far too diffuse. His best hymns, and those which have been most popular in German and English beyond the Moravian connection, are those of the period prior to 1734. Among the characteristically Moravian hymns of the period 1734 to 1742 there are also, various noble pieces. The later productions, especially from 1743 to 1750, are as a rule one-sided, unreal, and exaggerated in sentiment, and debased in style; exemplifying a tendency inherited from Scheffler, and suffered to run to riot. Without doubt he wrote too much (especially considering the limited range of subjects treated of in his hymns), and gave too little care to revision and condensation. Yet many of his hymns are worthy of note, and are distinguished by a certain noble simplicity, true sweetness, lyric grace, unshaken faith in the reconciling grace of Christ, entire self-consecration, willingness to spend and be spent in the Master's service, and fervent brotherly love. The more important hymnbooks in which Zinzendorf’s productions mainly appeared may for convenience be briefly noted here, as follows:— (1) Sammlung geistlicher und lieblicher Lieder, Leipzig, 1725, with 889 hymns. The 2nd edition was published circa 1728, and contains anAnhäng with Nos. 890-1078 [Berlin Library, Ei. 2017]; while some copies have a Zugabe with Nos. 1079-1149 [Berlin, Ei. 2016], and others have also an Andere Zugabe, circa 1730, with hymns 1-44, bound up with them [Berlin, Ei, 2014, and British Museum]. The 3rd edition, with 1416 hymns in all, was published at Görlitz in 1731. A copy of this, now in the Hamburg Library, has bound up with Nachlese einiger geistlicher Lieder, dated 1733. (2) Herrnhut Gesang-Buch 1735 (Das Gesang-Buch der Gemeine in Herrn-Huth) with its various Anhange and Zugaben up to 1748. (3) London Gesang-Buch 1753-54 (Etwas vom Liede Mosis ... das ist: Alt- und neuer Brüder-Gesang, &c), published at London, vol. i. 1753, ii. 1754. (4) Brüder Gesang-Buch 1778 (Gesangbuch zum Gebrauch der evangelischen Brüdergemeinen), published at Barby in 1778. Zinzendorf's hymns passed into German non-Moravian use mainly through the Ebersdorf Gesang-Buch, 1742 (Evangelisches Gesangbuch in einen hinlänglichen Auszug der Alten, Neuern und Neuesten Lieder, &c), and in recent times through Knapp's Evangelischer Lieder-Schatz, 1837-1865. Comparatively few are found in non-Moravian English hymnbooks prior to 1840, save in the versions made by John Wesley. The translations made by the English Moravians have been very little used by others, except by those who were connected by birth with the Moravians, such as James Montgomery (through whose influence several were included in Mercer's Church Psalter & Hymn Book, 1855 and 1857), J. A. Latrobe and C. H. Bateman. The versions made by English non-Moravians since 1840 have been mostly of hymns which the Moravians themselves had not thought good to translate. In the larger edition of the English Moravian Hymn Book of 1886, hymns which are by Zinzendorf may easily be traced, his name being added to them, and the first line of the original German prefixed. The others which have passed into use outside the Moravian connection, or have been translated by non-Moravians, are here noted as follows:— i. Ach Bein von meinen Beinen. Longing for Heaven. Written circa 1750 (Knapp, 1845, p. 176). Included in the Kleine Brüder Gesang-Buch, 2nd ed. Barby, 1761, No. 2110, in 2 stanzas of 8 lines; repeated, altered, in the Brüder Gesang-Buch,1778. No. 1681. Translated as:— 1. The seasons, Lord! are Thine—how soon. A free version as No. 479 in J. A. Latrobe's Psalms & Hymns, 1841. 2. How soon, exalted Jesus. This is No. 838 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789 (1886, No. 1233). ii. Ach! mein verwundter Fürste. Union with Christ. Written Aug. 1737 (Knapp, 1845, p. 125). First published in Appendix viii., circa 1738, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1197, and in 4 stanzas of 6 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 774, stanza iv. was omitted. The translation in common use is of stanzas i., ii. Another translation is, "My wounded Prince enthron'd on high," by C. Kinchen, as No. 85 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1742. In the 1808 and later editions(1886, No. 352), stanza iii. altered to "Lord, take my sinful, worthless heart "is continued. iii. Der Gott von unserm Bunde. Supplication. Written in 1737 ( Knap , 1845, p. 231). First published in Appendix vii., circa 1738, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1201, in 5 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled, "Hymn for the Hours of Prayer." In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1474. The translation in common use is based on stanza i., ii. Other translations are (1) "The God to whom we homage pay." This is No. 97 in pt. iii. 1748 of the Moravian Hymn Book. (2) "O may the God of mercies." This is No. 592 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801. In the ed. of 1886, No. 706, it begins with stanza iii., "Lord, our High Priest and Saviour." iv. Die Bäume blühen ab. Autumn . In the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, No. 12, dated Autumn, 1721, and entitled "Comforting thoughts on Death." It is in Knapp, 1845, p. 17. Further noted under "Wie wird mir einst doch sein". v. Du Vater aller Kreatur. Work for Christ. Written 1722 (Knapp, 1845, p. 26). First published in Appendix. vi., circa 1737, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1159, and in 13 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1717 consists of stanza viii.-xiii. beginning, "Des Lebens abgestecktes Ziel." Translated as:— Whether the period of this life. This is a translation of stanza viii.-x. as No. 847 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789. To this in later eds. (1886, No. 1235) No. 848 was added. This is "Lord may 1 live to Thee by faith," and is a translation of an anonymous 17th century stanza, "Herr Jesu! dir leb ich," which is No. 1686 in the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778. The full form is in J. A. Latrobe's Psalms & Hymns, 1841. vi. Geschwister! wir geben uns Herzen und Hände. Christian Work. Written 1737 (Knap p, 1845, p. 234). First published in Appendix vii., circa 1738, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1217, and in 8 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1391, it is united, as in Knapp, with "Gesinde des Heilands". Translated as:— Grace! how good, how cheap, how free. This is a translation, by C. Kinchen, of stanza v., as No. 28 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1742. Included in Spurgeon's Our Own Hymn Book, 1866. vii. Glanz der Ewigkeit. Morning. In the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 13, dated Berlin, May, 1721. First published as No. 470 in the Sammlung, 1725, in 15 stanzas of 6 lines. In Knapp, 1845, p. 16. The only stanza translated into English is stanza xi. as part of "Jesu, geh' voran”. viii. Grosser Bundes-Engel. Ascensiontide. Written for Ascension Day (his birthday), 1740 (Knapp, 1845, p. 144, dated May 26, 1740). First published in Appendix xi., circa 1741, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1426, in 27 stanzas of 8 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 603. Translated as:— Lord, when Thou saidst, So let it be. This is a translation, by C. G. Clemens, of stanza iii., as No. 156 in the Moravian Hymn Book , 1789 (1849, No. 190). Included in the Congregational Hymn Book, 1836, and in Dr. Martineau's Hymns, 1840 and 1873. ix. Heiliger, heiliger, heiliger Herr Zebaoth. Eternal Life. Heaven Anticipated. The Rev. J. T. Müller, of Herrnhut, informs me that this was written in 1723 on the occasion of the birthday (Oct.6) of Zinzendorf s grandmother, H. C. von Gersdorf. Knapp, 1845, p. 193, dates it Oct. 18, 1723. First published as No. 1078 (2) in the 2nd ed., circa 1728, of the Sammlung in 7 stanzas of 7 lines, entitled, Closing Hymn. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, stanza ii., iii., beginning "Hatten wir," are included as stanzas i., ii., of No. 1739. Translated as:— Had we nought, had we nought. This is a translation of stanzas ii., iii., by W. O. Keley, as No. 1189 in the 1808 Supplement to the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801 (1849, No. 1186), and repeated in J. A. Latrobe's Psalms & Hymns, 1841, No. 475. x. Ich bin ein kleines Kindelein. Children. This is No. 1022 in the 3rd ed., 1731, of the Sammlung, in 13 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1214, and in the Hist. Nachricht thereto (1835, p. 188) marked as a catechetical hymn for children, and dated 1723. Knapp, 1845, p. 40, dates it June, 1723, and alters it to "Ich bin ein Kindlein, arm und klein." It is a simple and beautiful hymn, and is contained in a number of recent German non-Moravian collections, e.g. in the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 1408. Translated as:— 1. Saviour, who didst from Heaven come down. This is a free translation of stanzas ii.,iii., v., made by James Bullivant Tomalin in 1860, and contributed to Lord Selborne's Book of Praise, ed. 1866, Appendix, No. 27, with the note at p. 500, "I am indebted for this to the kindness of the translator." Repeated in S. D. Major's Book of Praise for Home & School, 1869, and in America in the Baptist Service of Song, 1871, &c. In M. W. Stryker's Christian Chorals, 1885, and Church Song, 1889, it is altered, beginning, "O Saviour, Who from Heav'n came down." 2. I am a little child you see. By C. Kinchen, as No. 49 in the Moravian Hymn Book 1742. This form is followed in the edition of 1886, No. 1038, and in the Bible Hymn Book, 1845. In the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789, it begins with stanza ii., "Thou, gracious Saviour, for my good;" and this form altered to, "My Saviour dear, Thou for my good," is in Montgomery's Christian Psalmist, 1825. xi. Kommt, Sünder, und blicket dem ewigen Sohne. Repentance or Lent. Mr. Müller informs me that this was written in Aug. 1736, at , 1845, p. 130, dates it Nov. 22,1738. First published in Appendix viii., circa 1739, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1308, in 9 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch 1778, No. 321. Translated as:— Sinners! come; the Saviour see. This a good and full translation by C. Kinchen, as No. 120, in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1742. Of this stanzas i., ii. are included in Spurgeon's Our Own Hymn Book, 1866. Other forms are (1) "Are you formed a creature new" (stanza vi.). In the Moravian Hymn Book, 1769 (1886, No. 1280), Montgomery's Christian Psalmist, 1825, &c. (2) "Rise, go forth to meet the Lamb" (stanza viii. alt.). In J. A. Latrobe's Psalms & Hymns, 1852, No. 457. xii. Kron' und Lohn behertzter Ringer. The Beatitudes. Founded on St. Matt. v. 3-12. In his Teutsche Gedichte, 1735. p. 41, dated, Sept. 7, 1722 (his marriage day), and entitled, "Thoughts on my own marriage." First published as No. 700 in the Sammlung, 1725, in 16 stanzas of 12 lines. In Knapp, 1845, p. 30. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 513, beginning, "Jesu, der du uns erworben." Translated as:— Jesu! Lord so great and glorious. This, omitting stanzas xiv., xv., is No. 226 in pt. ii. of the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754, as "Jesus, Lord most great and glorious"). The versions of stanzas i., ix., xvi., from the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789, were included in the Dalston Hospital Hymn Book, 1848. xiii. Naht heran, ihr lieben Glieder. Holy Communion. Written in 1731 (Knapp, 1845, p. 212). 1st published in the 3rd ed., 1731, of the Sammlung as No. 1416 in 16 stanzas of 4 lines. Also in the Brüder Gesang-Buch 1778, No. 1148. Translated as:— 1. Friends in Jesus, now draw near. This is a free translation, omitting stanza v., vi., viii.-x.,xiv., by Miss Borthwick in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 4th ser., 1862, p. 57, the German being quoted as "Kommt herein, ihr lieben Glieder." This translation is repeated in full in Lyra Eucharistica, 1863, p. 34, and abridged in G. S. Jellicoe's Collection 1867, Windle, No. 480, and Harland, 1876, No. 451. 2. Come, approach to Jesu's table. This is No. 556 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789 (1849, No. 965), xiv. 0 du Hüter Ephraim. Supplication for Grace. In his Teutsche Gedichte, 1735,p. 158, dated 1728,entitled, "On his wife's 28th birthday " (she was born Nov. 7, 1700), and with the note, "This poem was written for the birthday festival of the Countess, was sung by a company or coterie of friends, each member of which was indicated according to their circumstances at the time." It had previously appeared, without the first stanza, and this form, which begins, "Herz der göttlichen Natur". xv. Rath, Kraft, und Held, und Wunderbar. Christmas. Founded on Is. ix. 6. In his Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 25, in 9 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled, "Christmas Thoughts," and dated 1721; and in the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch,1735, No. 827. In Knapp, 1845, p. 21. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 488, it begins with stanza vi., "Mein alles! mehr als alle Welt." Translated as:— My all things more than earth and sky. This is a translation of stanza vi., by C. G. Clemens, as No. 306 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789. In 1801 altered to "My all in all, my faithful Friend;" and to this in 1826, trs. of stanzas ii., vii.-ix.,by P. Latrobe, were added (1886.No. 399). From this form a cento in 5 stanzas of L. M., beginning, "O Lord! Thou art my rock, my guide," was included in Dr. Martineau's Hymns, 1840. xvi. Ruht aus von eurer Mühe. Christian Church. Written in 1737 (Knapp 1845, p. 232, as Du gestern und auch heute). First published in Appendix vi., circa 1737, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1183, in 8 stanzas of 8 lines, entitled, "Hymn of the witnesses." In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, stanza iv. is given as No. 1042. Translated as:— 0 Jesus Christ, most holy. This is a translation of stanza iv. by C. G. Clemens, as No. 487 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789 (1849, No. 807 ; 1886, No. 795, beginning, "Lord Jesus Christ") Included in Spurgeon's Our Own Hymn Book, 1866. xvii. Seligs Volk der Zeugenwolk. Holy Communion. Written in 1739 (Knapp, 1845, p. 138, beginning, "Christi Blut, Die Segensfluth," and p. 256, "Selig Volk.") First published in Appendix viii., circa 1739, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1340, in 14 stanzas of 8 lines, entitled, "Hymn at the Feast of Love." In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, as Nos. 1127 and 1422, the latter beginning, "Werther Tod und Wunden roth; " and including stanza xi. ("Wisst ihr was? So heisst der Pass"), xiii., xiv. Translated as:— 1. Would the world our passport see. This is a translation of stanza xi., xiii. as No. 1152 in the 1808 Supplement to the Moravian Hymn Book of 1801 (1886, No. 895). Included as No. 212 in J. A. Latrobe's Psalms & Hymns, 1841. 2. Flock of Grace, ye Witnesses. This is No. 40 in pt. iii. 1748 of the Moravian Hymn Book. 3. Happy race of witnesses. By C. Kinchen as No. 551 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789. In 1886 four stanzas are given as No. 951, and the other two beginning, "Eat and rest at this great feast" (stanza viii.) as No. 1022. xviii. Was hatten wir für Freude oder Ehre . Repentance. Written in 1739 (Knapp, 1845, p. 139). First published in Appendix viii., circa 1739, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1349, and in 48 stanza of 2 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 396, reduced to 19 stanzas. Translated as:— What Joy or Honour could we have. In full as No. 161 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1742; abridged in 1789 to 12, and in 1801 to 7 stanzas. The 1801 version, which represents stanzas i.-iv., viii., ix., xi. was included in Montgomery's Christian Psalmist, 1825; and with the trs. of stanzas iii., xi. omitted, and a hortatory stanza added, as No. 268 in J. A. Latrobe's Psalms & Hymns, 1841. In the Moravian Hymn Book, 1886, No. 322, it begins with the translation of stanza iii., "None is so holy, pure, and just." xix. Wenn sich die Kinder freuen. Christian Work. Written about 1752 (Knapp, 1845, p. 179, as "Wenn wir uns kindlich freuen"). Included as No. 2101 in the London Gesang-Buch (Etwas vom Liede Mosis, &c), 1753, in 15 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 490 consists of stanzas i.—iii., vi., ix., xiii.-xv. beginning, "Wenu wir uns kindlich freuen." Translated as:— 1. When we seek with loving heart. By Miss Borthwick, in full from the 1778 (with an original stanza as stanza ix.) in the Family Treasury, 1861, pt. ii., p. 112, and in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 1862, p. 89 (1884, p. 250). Repeated, abridged, in E. T. Prust's Supplemental Hymn Book, 1869. 2. When the children joyful are. This is No. 312 in pt. ii. of the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754. 3. When children are rejoicing . This is at p. 373 of pt. ii. in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754. xx. Wir sind nur dazu. Christian Warfare. Written in 1734 (Knapp, 1845, p. 113). First published in Appendix iii., circa 1737, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1073, and in 21 stanzas of 6 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1330 has 13 stanzas; while stanza xvii. ("Die Streitertreue") is given as stanza v. of No. 1394. Translated as:— Warrior, on thy station stand. This is a translation of stanza xvii. as No. 1161 in the 1808 Supplement to the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801 (1886, No. 896). Adopted by Dr. Martineau in his Hymns, 1840 and 1873, altered to "Warrior! to thy duty stand." Hymns not in English common use:— xxi. Auf, auf, es ist geschehe. Holy Communion. This is No. 166 in the Sammlung, 1725, in 12 stanzas of 4 lines, and in the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 2. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1188 it begins, "Ich eil in Jesu Armen" (5 stanzas being added, and stanzas viii., xi. omitted), and in the Hist. Nachricht thereto (ed. 1851, p. 188) is marked as written on the occasion of his first communion in 1714. In Knapp, 1845, p. 6, it begins, "Ist's ja, es ist geschehen," Translated as "Happy, thrice happy hour of grace." By L. T. Nyberg, of stanzas i., xii., as No. 693 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789 (1886, No. 1021) ; repeated in C. H. Bateman's Congregational Psalmist, 1846. xxii. Christen sind ein göttlich Volk. Christian Life. In the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 231, dated 1731, and entitled, "Hymn for a Royal Princess-apparent," viz. for Charlotte Amelia, daughter of King Christian VI. of Denmark. It had appeared in the Nachlese of 1733 to Knapp, 1845, p. 97, and in the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 491. Translated as “Christians are a holy band, Gathered by the Saviour's hand." This is by Dr. J. F. Hurst in his translation of K. R. Hagenbach's History of the Church in the 18th and 19th Centuries, N. Y., 1869, vol. i., p. 434. xxiii. Das äussre Schifflein wälgert sich. For those at Sea. First published in the Zugabe, circa 1744, to Appendix xi. to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1855, in 16 stanzas of 4 lines entitled, "Hymn for the ship's company, February, 1743." Written during a stormy passage from America to Germany. In Knapp, 1845, p. 164. The translations are: (1) "Our ship upon the surging sea." In the British Herald, Aug. 1866, p. 313, repeated in Reid's Praise Book, 1872. (2) "Our little bark, it rocks itself." In L. Rehfuess's Church at Sea, 1868, p. 18. xxiv. Die Christen gehn von Ort zu Ort. Burial of the Dead. In the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 113, as part of No. 45, which is entitled "Over the grave of the grandmother" (Henriette Catharine von Gersdorf. She died March 6, 1726), and dated March, 1726. The hymn itself is entitled, "Air after the funeral rites." It had appeared in the Andere Zugabe, circa 1730, to the Sammlung as No. 6 (ed. 1731, No. 1246), in 3 stanzas of 8 lines entitled, “Funeral Hymn." In Knapp, 1845, p. 72, and in the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1701. The translations are : 1) "Believers go from place to place." By Dr. J. Hunt in his Spiritual Songs of Martin Luther, 1853, p. 146. (2) "Through scenes of woe, from place to place." By Dr. G. Walker, 1860, p. 50. (3) "From place to place the Christian goes." By J. D. Burns in his Memoir & Remains, 1869, p. 263. (4) “From land to land the Christian goes." This is No. 1251 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1886. xxv. Du innig geliebter Erloser der Sünder. Readiness to serve Christ. Written in 1735 (Knapp, 1845, p. 222). First published in Appendix iv., circa 1737, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1080, and in 6 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1335. Translated as "Sinners' Redeemer whom we only love." This is a translation of stanzas i., iv., v., by C. Kinchen, as No. 121 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1742. In the 1789 and later editions (1886, No. 861), it begins, "Sinners' Redeemer, gracious Lamb of God." The text of 1742, slightly altered, is No. 206 in Lady Huntingdon's Selection, 1780. xxvi. Du Vater aller Geister. Evening. In the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 15, entitled, "Evening Thoughts," and dated Oct. 1721. It is No. 497 in the Sammlung, 1725, in 6 stanzas of 8 lines. In Knapp, 1845, p. 16, and in the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 235. Translated as “Father of living Nature." By H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 102. xxvii. Gesinde des Heilands des seligen Gottes. Christian Work. Written in 1737 (Knapp, 1845, p. 234), first published in Appendix vii., circa 1738, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1216, and in 10 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1391. Translated as "Ye blest Domestics of the slaughter'd Lamb." In full as No. 178 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1742 (1754, pt. ii., No. 250). Repeated, abridged, in the Bible Hymn Book, 1845, No. 286. xxviii. Ich bitt dich, herzliches Gottes-Lamm! Love to Christ. Written in Oct. 1741 (Knapp, 1845, p. 152, as "Ein selig Herze führt diese Sprach"). First published in Appendix xi., circa 1743, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1724, and in 12 stanzas of 5 lines, In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 704, it begins, with stanza ii., altered to "Ein selges Herze führt diese Sprach." Translated as "When heavenwards my best affections move." By Miss Borthwick (from the 1778), dated April, 1861, in the Family Treasury , 1861, p. 328. In Hymns from the Land of Luther, 4th ser., 1862, p. 60 (1884, p. 223), altered to "When towards heaven." xxix. 0 du Hüter Ephraim. Burial of the Dead. This is included at p. 10 in the Nachlese of 1733 to the 3rd ed. 1731 of the Sammlung, and is in 8 stanzas of 8 lines, entitled, "Of departure to the Father;" and in the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 256, entitled, "In the name of the community." Included as No. 695 in the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, 1735, beginning with stanza ii. altered to "Tödten ist dem Herrn erlaubt." In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1715, it begins with stanza iii., "Ehmals sollts gestorben sein," and in the Hist. Nachricht thereto (1835, p. 190) is marked as written on the death of Matthaus Linner in 1732. In Knapp, 1845, p. 101. Translated as "Once the sentence justly sounded." By Miss Borthwick in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 1862, p. 92 (1884, p. 252). xxx. 0 Liebe, die in fremde Noth. On Unity. In the Teutsche Gedichte, 1735, p. 94, dated 1725, and entitled, "On the Saviour's faithfulness." First published as No. 198 (b) in the 1725 Sammlung, in 18 stanzas of 4 lines. In the London Gesang-Buch, 1753, No. 1764, stanzas ix., x., beginning, " Der du noch in der letzten Nacht," were given as a separate hymn; and this form is repeated in the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 714, the Berlin Geistliches Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 1037, &c. In Knapp, 1845, p. 70. The translations, all of stanza ix., x., are: (1) "Lord Jesus, who that very night." By P. H. Molther, as stanzas ii., iii. of No. 387 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789 (1886, No. 477, beginning, "Lord Jesus, in that"). (2) "Thou Who didst die for all and each." By Miss Cox, 1841, p. 147. (3) "O Thou, Who with Thy latest breath." By Lady E. Fortescue, 1843, p. 66. (4) "Thou who in that bitter night." By Miss Warner, 1858, p. 436. (5) "Thou who in that last sad night." By Miss Fry, 1859, p. 151. (6) "Thou who upon that last sad night." In the Family Treasury, 1859, p. 200. (7) "O Thou who didst on that last night." By R. Massie in the British Herald, Feb. 1865, p. 28. (8) "O Thou, who on that last sad eve." By E. Massie, 1866, p. 69. xxxi. O wie so gliicklich waren wir. Love to Christ. On the blessedness of union with Christ. First published in Appendix vii., circa 1738, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch as No. 1237, and in 8 stanzas of 8 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 829, and in the Hist. Nachricht thereto (1835, p. 186) marked as written for J. A. Rothe (p. 978, i.), and dated 1737. In Knapp, 1845, p. 236. Translated as "How full our cup of joy would be." By Miss Burlingham in the British Herald, Sept. 1865, p. 131, and in Reid's Praise Book, 1872. xxxii. Reiner Bräutgam meiner Seelen. Desire for Holiness. Written in 1721 (Knapp, 1845, p. 21). Included in the 2nd edition, circa 1728, of the Sammlung as No. 1001, and in the Christ-Catholisches Singe- und Bet-Büchlein, 1727, p. 133, in 30 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 798. Translated as "Jesu, to Thee my heart I bow." This is a free translation of stanzas i., x.-xii., xvi., xvii., by J. Wesley in Psalms & Hymns, Charlestown, 1736-7, and Hymns and Sacred Poems, 1739 (Poetical Works 1868-72, vol i., p. 109). Repeated in the Wesley Hymns & Spiritual Songs, 1753, Moravian Hymn Book, 1754, Bayley's Selection, Manchester, 1789, Bateman's Congregational Psalmist, 1846. xxxiii. Schau von deinem Thron. Supplication. Written in 1720 (Knapp, 1845, p. 14), and founded on the Lord's Prayer. In the Sammlung, 1725, No. 443, in 6 stanzas of 6 lines. Translated as "All glory to the Eternal Three." By J. Wesley in Hymns & Sacred Poems, 1739 (Poetical Works, 1868-72, vol. i., p. 130). xxxiv. Solche Leute will der König küssen. Humility. First published in Appendix vii., circa 1738, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1241, and in 4 stanzas of 4 lines. Mr. Müller informs me that it was written in 1738, and was dedicated to Eva Maria Immig née Ziegelbauer, who on March 5,1740, became the wife of A. G. Spangenberg. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 842, stanzas ii., iii. are stanzas i., iv. of this Knapp, 1845, p. 89 dates it 1728. The translations are:—(1) "To such the King will give a kiss of Love." This is No. 154 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1742 (1754, pt. ii., No. 62). (2) "His loving kindness those shall richly share." This is No. 508 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801. (3) "Such the King will stoop to and embrace." By Miss Winkworth, 1869, p. 310. xxxv. Verliebter in die Sünderschaft. Love to Christ. First published in Appendix iii., circa 1737, to the Herrnhut Gesang-Buch, as No. 1072, in 4 stanzas of 8 lines. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch

Priscilla Jane Owens

1829 - 1907 Person Name: Priscilla J. Owens Author of "Jesus Saves." in Victory Songs Owens, Priscilla Jane, was born July 21, 1829, of Scotch and Welsh descent, and is now (1906) resident at Baltimore, where she is engaged in public-school work. For 50 years Miss Owen has interested herself in Sunday-school work, and most of her hymns were written for children's services. Her hymn in the Scotch Church Hymnary, 1898, "We have heard a joyful sound" (Missions), was written for a Sunday-school Mission Anniversary, and the words were adapted to the chorus "Vive le Roi" in the opera The Huguenots. [Rev. James Bonar, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix II (1907) ========================= Owens, Priscilla Jane. (July 21, 1829--December 5, 1907). Of Scottish and Welsh ancestry, she spent her entire life in Baltimore. She was a public school teacher there for 49 years. She was a member of the Union Square Methodist Church and took particular interest in its Sunday School. Her literary efforts, both in prose and poetry, appeared in such religious periodicals as the Methodist Protestant and the Christian Standard. --William J. Reynolds, DNAH Archives

Lewis E. Jones

1865 - 1936 Person Name: L. E. J. Author of "There Is Power in the Blood" in Best Hymns No. 4 Lewis Edgar Jones, 1865-1936 Born: Feb­ru­a­ry 8, 1865, Yates City, Il­li­nois. Died: Sep­tem­ber 1, 1936, San­ta Bar­ba­ra, Cal­i­for­nia. Buried: Al­too­na Wal­nut Grove Cem­e­te­ry, Etowah Coun­ty, Al­a­ba­ma. Pseudonyms: Lewis Edgar Edgar Lewis Mary Slater A class­mate of evan­gel­ist Bil­ly Sun­day, Jones at­tend­ed the Moo­dy Bi­ble In­sti­tute. Af­ter grad­u­a­tion, he worked for the Young Men’s Christ­ian As­so­ci­a­tion in Da­ven­port, Io­wa; Fort Worth, Tex­as (1915); and San­ta Bar­ba­ra, Cal­i­forn­ia (1925). Hymn writ­ing was his avo­ca­tion. Sources: Hustad, P. 266 Reynolds, P. 327 Reynolds, P. 347 Taylor, P. 340

Cecil Frances Alexander

1818 - 1895 Person Name: Cecil Frances (Humphreys) Alexander Author of "There Is a Green Hill Far Away" in The Hymnal and Order of Service Alexander, Cecil Frances, née Humphreys, second daughter of the late Major John Humphreys, Miltown House, co. Tyrone, Ireland, b. 1823, and married in 1850 to the Rt. Rev. W. Alexander, D.D., Bishop of Derry and Raphoe. Mrs. Alexander's hymns and poems number nearly 400. They are mostly for children, and were published in her Verses for Holy Seasons, with Preface by Dr. Hook, 1846; Poems on Subjects in the Old Testament, pt. i. 1854, pt. ii. 1857; Narrative Hymns for Village Schools, 1853; Hymns for Little Children, 1848; Hymns Descriptive and Devotional, 1858; The Legend of the Golden Prayers 1859; Moral Songs, N.B.; The Lord of the Forest and his Vassals, an Allegory, &c.; or contributed to the Lyra Anglicana, the S.P.C.K. Psalms and Hymns, Hymns Ancient & Modern, and other collections. Some of the narrative hymns are rather heavy, and not a few of the descriptive are dull, but a large number remain which have won their way to the hearts of the young, and found a home there. Such hymns as "In Nazareth in olden time," "All things bright and beautiful," "Once in Royal David's city," "There is a green hill far away," "Jesus calls us o'er the tumult," "The roseate hues of early dawn," and others that might be named, are deservedly popular and are in most extensive use. Mrs. Alexander has also written hymns of a more elaborate character; but it is as a writer for children that she has excelled. - John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) =============== Alexander, Cecil F., née Humphreys, p. 38, ii. Additional hymns to those already noted in this Dictionary are in common use:— 1. Christ has ascended up again. (1853.) Ascension. 2. His are the thousand sparkling rills. (1875.) Seven Words on the Cross (Fifth Word). 3. How good is the Almighty God. (1S48.) God, the Father. 4. In [a] the rich man's garden. (1853.) Easter Eve. 5. It was early in the morning. (1853.) Easter Day. 6. So be it, Lord; the prayers are prayed. (1848.) Trust in God. 7. Saw you never in the twilight? (1853.) Epiphany. 8. Still bright and blue doth Jordan flow. (1853.) Baptism of Our Lord. 9. The angels stand around Thy throne. (1848.) Submission to the Will of God. 10. The saints of God are holy men. (1848.) Communion of Saints. 11. There is one Way and only one. (1875.) SS. Philip and James. 12. Up in heaven, up in heaven. (1848.) Ascension. 13. We are little Christian children. (1848.) Holy Trinity. 14. We were washed in holy water. (1848.) Holy Baptism. 15. When of old the Jewish mothers. (1853.) Christ's Invitation to Children. 16. Within the Churchyard side by side. (1848.) Burial. Of the above hymns those dated 1848 are from Mrs. Alexander's Hymns for Little Children; those dated 1853, from Narrative Hymns, and those dated 1875 from the 1875 edition of Hymns Ancient & Modern. Several new hymns by Mrs. Alexander are included in the 1891 Draft Appendix to the Irish Church Hymnal. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907) ============= Alexander, Cecil F. , p. 38, ii. Mrs. Alexander died at Londonderry, Oct. 12, 1895. A number of her later hymns are in her Poems, 1896, which were edited by Archbishop Alexander. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907) See also in:Hymn Writers of the Church

J. M. Neale

1818 - 1866 Person Name: John M. Neale Translator of "Brief Life Is Here Our Portion" in The Lutheran Hymnal Neale, John Mason, D.D., was born in Conduit Street, London, on Jan. 24, 1818. He inherited intellectual power on both sides: his father, the Rev. Cornelius Neale, having been Senior Wrangler, Second Chancellor's Medallist, and Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, and his mother being the daughter of John Mason Good, a man of considerable learning. Both father and mother are said to have been "very pronounced Evangelicals." The father died in 1823, and the boy's early training was entirely under the direction of his mother, his deep attachment for whom is shown by the fact that, not long before his death, he wrote of her as "a mother to whom I owe more than I can express." He was educated at Sherborne Grammar School, and was afterwards a private pupil, first of the Rev. William Russell, Rector of Shepperton, and then of Professor Challis. In 1836 he went up to Cambridge, where he gained a scholarship at Trinity College, and was considered the best man of his year. But he did not inherit his father's mathematical tastes, and had, in fact, the greatest antipathy to the study; and as the strange rule then prevailed that no one might aspire to Classical Honours unless his name had appeared in the Mathematical Tripos, he was forced to be content with an ordinary degree. This he took in 1840; had he been one year later, he might have taken a brilliant degree, for in 1841 the rule mentioned above was rescinded. He gained, however, what distinctions he could, winning the Members' Prize, and being elected Fellow and Tutor of Downing College; while, as a graduate, he won the Seatonian Prize no fewer than eleven times. At Cambridge he identified himself with the Church movement, which was spreading there in a quieter, but no less real, way than in the sister University. He became one of the founders of the Ecclesiological, or, as it was commonly called, the Cambridge Camden Society, in conjunction with Mr. E. J. Boyce, his future brother-in-law, and Mr. Benjamin Webb, afterwards the well-known Vicar of St. Andrew's, Wells Street, and editor of The Church Quarterly Review. In 1842 he married Miss Sarah Norman Webster, the daughter of an evangelical clergyman, and in 1843 he was presented to the small incumbency of Crawley in Sussex. Ill health, however, prevented him from being instituted to the living. His lungs were found to be badly affected; and, as the only chance of saving his life, he was obliged to go to Madeira, where he stayed until the summer of 1844. In 1846 he was presented by Lord Delaware to the Wardenship of Sackville College, East Grinstead. This can hardly be considered as an ecclesiastical preferment, for both his predecessor and his successor were laymen. In fact the only ecclesiastical preferment that ever was offered to him was the Provostship of St. Ninian's, Perth. This was an honourable office, for the Provostship is equivalent to a Deanery in England, but it was not a lucrative one, being worth only £100 a year. He was obliged to decline it, as the climate was thought too cold for his delicate health. In the quiet retreat of East Grinstead, therefore, Dr. Neale spent the remainder of his comparatively short life, dividing his time between literary work, which all tended, directly or indirectly, to the advancement of that great Church revival of which he was so able and courageous a champion, and the unremitting care of that sisterhood of which he was the founder. He commenced a sisterhood at Rotherfield on a very small scale, in conjunction with Miss S. A. Gream, daughter of the rector of the parish; but in 1856 he transferred it to East Grinstead, where, under the name of St. Margaret's, it has attained its present proportions. Various other institutions gradually arose in connection with this Sisterhood of St. Margaret's, viz., an Orphanage, a Middle Class School for girls, and a House at Aldershot for the reformation of fallen women. The blessing which the East Grinstead Sisters have been to thousands of the sick and suffering cannot here be told. But it must be mentioned that Dr. Neale met with many difficulties, and great opposition from the outside, which, on one occasion, if not more, culminated in actual violence. In 1857 he was attending the funeral of one of the Sisters at Lewes, when a report was spread that the deceased had been decoyed into St. Margaret's Home, persuaded to leave all her money to the sisterhood, and then purposely sent to a post in which she might catch the scarlet fever of which she died. To those who knew anything of the scrupulously delicate and honourable character of Dr. Neale, such a charge would seem absurd on the face of it; but mobs are not apt to reflect, and it was very easy to excite a mob against the unpopular practices and sentiments rife at East Grinstead; and Dr. Neale and some Sisters who were attending the funeral were attacked and roughly handled. He also found opponents in higher quarters; he was inhibited by the Bishop of the Diocese for fourteen years, and the Aldershot House was obliged to be abandoned, after having done useful work for some years, in consequence of the prejudice of officials against the religious system pursued. Dr. Neale's character, however, was a happy mixture of gentleness and firmness; he had in the highest degree the courage of his convictions, which were remarkably definite and strong; while at the same time he maintained the greatest charity towards, and forbearance with, others who did not agree with him. It is not surprising, therefore, that he lived all opposition down; and that, while from first to last his relations with the community at East Grinstead were of the happiest description, he was also, after a time, spared any molestation from without. The institution grew upon his hands, and he became anxious to provide it with a permanent and fitting home. His last public act was to lay the foundation of a new convent for the Sisters on St. Margaret's Day (July 20), 1865. He lived long enough to see the building progress, but not to see it completed. In the following spring his health, which had always been delicate, completely broke down, and after five months of acute suffering he passed away on the Feast of the Transfiguration (Aug. 6), 1866, to the bitter regret of the little community at East Grinstead and of numberless friends outside that circle. One trait of his singularly lovable character must not pass unnoticed. His charity, both in the popular and in the truer Christian sense of the word, was unbounded; he was liberal and almost lavish with his money, and his liberality extended to men of all creeds and opinions; while it is pleasing to record that his relations with his ecclesiastical superiors so much improved that he dedicated his volume of Seatonian Poems to the bishop of the diocese. If however success in life depended upon worldly advantages, Dr. Neale's life would have to be pronounced a failure; for, as his old friend, Dr. Littledale, justly complains, "he spent nearly half his life where he died, in the position of warden of an obscure Almshouse on a salary of £27 a year." But, measured by a different standard, his short life assumes very different proportions. Not only did he win the love and gratitude of those with whom he was immediately connected, but he acquired a world-wide reputation as a writer, and he lived to see that Church revival, to promote which was the great object of his whole career, already advancing to the position which it now occupies in the land of his birth. Dr. Neale was an industrious and voluminous writer both in prose and verse; it is of course with the latter class of his writings that this sketch is chiefly concerned; but a few words must first be said about the former. I.— Prose Writings.— His first compositions were in the form of contributions to The Ecclesiologist, and were written during his graduate career at Cambridge. Whilst he was in Madeira he began to write his Commentary on the Psalms, part of which was published in 1860. It was afterwards given to the world, partly written by him and partly by his friend, Dr. Littledale, in 4 vols., in 1874, under the title of A Commentary on the Psalms, from Primitive and Mediaeval Writers. This work has been criticised as pushing the mystical interpretation to an extravagant extent. But Dr. Neale has anticipated and disarmed such criticism by distinctly stating at the commencement that "not one single mystical interpretation throughout the present Commentary is original;" and surely such a collection has a special value as a wholesome correction of the materialistic and rationalistic tendencies of the age. His next great work, written at Sackville College, was The History of the Holy Eastern Church. The General Introduction was published in 1847; then followed part of the History itself, The Patriarchate of Alexandria, in 2 vols.; and after his death another fragment was published, The History of the Patriarchate of Antioch, to which was added, Constantius's Memoirs of the Patriarchs of Antioch, translated from the Greek, edited by the Rev. G. Williams, 1 vol. The whole fragment was published in 5 vols. (1847-1873). The work is spoken very highly of, and constantly referred to, by Dean Stanley in his Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church. Dr. Neale was naturally in strong sympathy with the struggling Episcopal Church of Scotland, and to show that sympathy he published, in 1856, The Life and Times of Patrick Torry, D.D., Bishop of St. Andrews, &c, with an Appendix on the Scottish Liturgy. In the same direction was his History of the so-called Jansenist Church in Holland, 1858. Next followed Essays on Liturgiology and Church History, with an Appendix on Liturgical Quotations from the Isapostolical Fathers by the Rev. G. Moultrie, 1863, a 2nd edition of which, with an interesting Preface by Dr. Littledale, was published in 1867. It would be foreign to the purpose of this article to dwell on his other prose works, such as his published sermons, preached in Sackville College Chapel, his admirable little devotional work, Readings for the Aged, which was a selection from these sermons; the various works he edited, such as the Tetralogia Liturgica, the Sequentiae ex Missalibus Germanicis, Anglicis, Gallicis, aliisque Medii Aevi Collectae; his edition of The Primitive Liturgies of S. Mark, S. Clement, S. James, S. Chrysostom and S. Basil, with a Preface by Dr. Littledale; his Translation of the same; his many stories from Church History, his Voices from the East, translated from the Russ, and his various articles contributed to the Ecclesiologist, The Christian Remembrance, The Morning Chronicle, and The Churchman's Companion. It is time to pass on to that with which we are directly concerned. II. —Poetical Writings.— As a sacred poet, Dr. Neale may be regarded under two aspects, as an original writer and as a translator. i. Original Writer.—Of his original poetry, the first specimen is Hymns for Children, published in 1842, which reached its 10th edition the year after his death. It consists of 33 short hymns, the first 19 for the different days of the week and different parts of the day, the last 14 for the different Church Seasons. This little volume was followed in 1844 by Hymns for the Young, which was intended to be a sequel to the former, its alternative title being A Second Series of Hymns for Children; but it is designed for an older class than the former, for young people rather than for children. The first 7 hymns are "for special occasions," as "on goiug to work," “leaving home” &c.; the next 8 on "Church Duties and Privileges," "Confirmation," "First Holy Communion," &c, the last 13 on "Church Festivals,” which, oddly enough, include the Four Ember Seasons, Rogation Days, and the Sundays in Advent. In both these works the severe and rigid style, copied, no doubt, from the old Latin hymns, is very observable. Perhaps this has prevented them from being such popular favourites as they otherwise might have been; but they are quite free from faults into which a writer of hymns for children is apt to fall. They never degenerate into mere prose in rhyme; and in every case the purity as well as the simplicity of their diction is very remarkable. In the same year (1844) he also published Songs and Ballads for Manufacturers, which were written during his sojourn in Madeira, and the aim of which (he tells us) was "to set forth good and sound principles in metaphors which might, from their familiarity, come home to the hearts of those to whom they were addressed." They are wonderfully spirited both in matter and manner, and their freedom of style is as remarkable as the rigidity of the former works. They were followed eleven years later (1855) by a similar little work entitled Songs and Ballads for the People. This is of a more aggressive and controversial character than the previous ones, dealing boldly with such burning questions as "The Teetotallers," "Why don't you go to Meeting?" &c. Passing over the Seatonian Poems, most of which were of course written before those noticed above, we next come to the Hymns for the Side, which is a fitting companion to the Readings for the Aged, and then to Sequences, Hymns, and other Ecclesiastical Verses, which was published just after the author's death (1866), and may be regarded as a sort of dying legacy to the world. In fact, the writer almost intimates as much in the preface, where he speaks of himself as "one who might soon be called to have done with earthly composition for ever." Many of the verses, indeed, were written earlier, "forty years ago," he says, which is evidently intended for twenty. The preface is dated "In the Octave of S. James, 1866," and within a fortnight, on the Feast of the Transfiguration, “the veil” (to use the touching words of his old friend, Dr. Littledale) "was withdrawn from before his eyes, and the song hushed on earth is now swelling the chorus of Paradise." Was it an accident that these verses dwell so much on death and the life beyond the grave? or did the coming event cast its shadow before? Not that there is any sadness of tone about them; quite the reverse. He contemplates death, but it is with the eye of a Christian from whom the sting of death has been removed. Most of the verses are on subjects connected with the Church Seasons, especially with what are called the "Minor Festivals:" but the first and last poems are on different subjects. The first, the "Prologue," is "in dear memory of John Keble, who departed on Maundy Thursday, 1866, "and is a most touching tribute from one sacred poet to another whom he was about to follow within a few months to the "land that is very far off." The last is a poetical version of the legend of "the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus," and is, the writer thinks, "the first attempt to apply to primitive Christianity that which is, to his mind, the noblest of our measures." That measure is the hexameter, and undoubtedly Dr. Neale employed it, as he did all his measures, with great skill and effect; but it may be doubted whether the English language, in which the quantities of syllables are not so clearly defined as in Latin and Greek, is quite adapted for that measure. Throughout this volume, Dr. Neale rises to a far higher strain than he had ever reached before. ii. Translations.— It is in this species of composition that Dr. Neale's success was pre-eminent, one might almost say unique. He had all the qualifications of a good translator. He was not only an excellent classical scholar in the ordinary sense of the term, but he was also positively steeped in mediaeval Latin. An anecdote given in an appreciative notice by "G. M." [Moultrie] happily illustrates this:— Dr. Neale "was invited by Mr. Keble and the Bishop of Salisbury to assist them with their new hymnal, and for this purpose he paid a visit to Hursley Parsonage." On one occasion Mr. Keble "having to go to another room to find some papers was detained a short time. On his return Dr. Neale said, ‘Why, Keble, I thought you told me that the "Christian Year" was entirely original.' ‘Yes,' he answered, 'it certainly is.' ‘Then how comes this?' and Dr. Neale placed before him the Latin of one of Keble's hymns. Keble professed himself utterly confounded. He protested that he had never seen this 'original,' no, not in all his life. After a few minutes Neale relieved him by owning that he had just turned it into Latin in his absence." Again, Dr. Neale's exquisite ear for melody prevented him from spoiling the rhythm by too servile an imitation of the original; while the spiritedness which is a marked feature of all his poetry preserved that spring and dash which is so often wanting in a translation. (i.) Latin.— Dr. Neale's translations from the Latin include (1.) Mediaeval Hymns and Sequences (1851). He was the, first to introduce to the English reader Sequences, that is, as he himself describes them, " hymns sung between the Epistle and Gospel in the Mass," or, as he explains more definitely, "hymns whose origin is to be looked for in the Alleluia of the Gradual sung between the Epistle and the Gospel." He was quite an enthusiast about this subject:— "It is a magnificent thing,” he says, "to pass along the far-stretching vista of hymns, from the sublime self-containedness of S. Ambrose to the more fervid inspiration of S. Gregory, the exquisite typology of Venantius Fortunatus, the lovely painting of St. Peter Damiani, the crystal-like simplicity of S. Notker, the scriptural calm of Godescalcus, the subjective loveliness of St. Bernard, till all culminate in the full blaze of glory which surrounds Adam of S. Victor, the greatest of them all." Feeling thus what a noble task he had before him, it is no wonder that he spared no pains over it, or that he felt it his duty to adopt "the exact measure and rhyme of the original, at whatever inconvenience and cramping." That he succeeded in his difficult work, the verdict of the public has sufficiently proved. Of all the translations in the English language no one has ever been so popular as that of the Hora Novissima, in this volume, afterwards (1858) published separately, under the title of the Rhythm of Bernard de Morlaix, Monk of Cluny. Some original hymns may be as well known as "Jerusalem the Golden," "For thee, O dear, dear country," or "Brief life is here our portion,” but it would be hard to find any translations which come near them for extensive use. A second edition of the Mediaeval Hymns, much improved, came out in 1863, and a third, "with very numerous additions and corrections," in 1867. (2.) We next come to the Hymnal Noted, in which 94 out of the 105 hymns are the work of Dr. Neale. These are all translations from the Latin. The first part appeared in 1852, the second in 1854. Dr. Neale has himself given us an interesting account of his connection with this work:— "Some," he writes, "of the happiest and most instructive hours of my life were spent in the Sub-Committee of the Ecclesiological Society, appointed for the purpose of bringing out the Second Part of the Hymnal Noted It was my business to lay before them the translations I had prepared, and theirs to correct. The study which this required drew out the beauties of the original in a way which nothing else could have done, and the friendly collisions of various minds elicited ideas which a single translator would in all probability have missed." Preface, Mediaeval Hymns & Sequences (3.) The last volume of translations from the Latin published by Dr. Neale appeared in 1865, under the title of Hymns, chiefly Mediaeval, on the Joys and Glories of Paradise. It was intended to be a companion volume to the Rhythm of Bernard of Cluny. In this work the writer gives the general reader an opportunity of comparing the translation with the original by printing the two together in parallel pages. Before quitting the subject of Dr. Neale's translations from the Latin, it is only fair to notice that while they have been almost universally accepted by the English Church, and some of them adopted by dissenting congregations, they called down upon the translator a storm of indignation from an opposite quarter. The Roman Catholics accused him of deliberate deception because he took no pains to point out that he had either softened down or entirely ignored the Roman doctrines in those hymns. So far, they said, as the originals were concerned, these translations were deliberate misrepresentations. As however the translations were intended for the use of the Anglican Church, it was only to be expected that Neale should omit such hymns or portions of hymns as would be at variance with her doctrines and discipline. (ii.) Greek.— Dr. Neale conferred even a greater boon upon the lovers of hymnology than by his translations from the Latin, when he published, in 1862, his Hymns of the Eastern Church. In his translations from the Latin he did what others had done before; but in his translations from the Greek he was opening entirely new ground. "It is," he says in his preface to the first edition, "a most remarkable fact, and one which shows how very little interest has been hitherto felt in the Eastern Church, that these are literally, I believe, the only English versions of any part of the treasures of Oriental Hymnology." As early as 1853 he had printed a few of his versions in The Ecclesiastic, but it was not till the appearance of the complete volume that the interest of the general public was awakened in them. Then they became wonderfully popular. His translations "Christian, dost thou see them?" "The day is past and over," "'Tis the day of Resurrection," and his Greek-inspired "Art thou weary," and "O happy band of pilgrims," are almost as great favourites as "Jerusalem the golden," and the first in his Hymns of the Eastern Church, "Fierce was the wild billow," deserves to be. Dr. Neale had a far more difficult task before him when he undertook these Greek hymns than he had with the Latin, and he appeals to the reader "not to forget the immense difficulty of an attempt so perfectly new as the present, when I have had no predecessors and therefore could have no master." That difficulty in comparison with the Latin cannot be better stated than in his own words:— "Though the superior terseness and brevity of the Latin hymns renders a translation which shall represent those qualities a work of great labour, yet still the versifier has the help of the same metre; his version may be line for line; and there is a great analogy between the collects and the hymns, most helpful to the translator. Above all, we have examples enough of former translation by which we may take pattern. But in attempting a Greek canon, from the fact of its being in prose (metrical hymns are unknown) one is all at sea. What measure shall we employ? Why this more than that? Might we attempt the rhythmical prose of the original, and design it to be chanted? Again, the great length of the canons renders them un suitable for our churches as wholes. Is it better simply to form centos of the more beautiful passages? or can separate odes, each necessarily imperfect, be employed as separate hymns? . . . My own belief is that the best way to employ Greek hymnology for the uses of the English Church would be by centos." That, in spite of these difficulties, Dr. Neale succeeded, is obvious. His Greek hymns are, indeed, adaptations rather than translations; but, besides their intrinsic beauty, they at any rate give some idea of what the Greek hymn-writers were. In this case, as in his translations from the Latin, he omitted what he held was not good from his Anglican point of view, e.g., the Doxologies to the Blessed Virgin Mary. One point strikes us as very remarkable in these hymns, and indeed in all Dr. Neale's poetry, viz., its thorough manliness of tone. Considering what his surroundings were, one might have expected a feminine tone in his writings. Dr. Littledale, in his most vivid and interesting sketch of Dr. Neale's life, to which the present writer is largely indebted, has remarked the same with regard to his teaching: "Instead of committing the grave error of feminising his sermons and counsels [at St. Margaret's] because he had only women to deal with, he aimed at showing them the masculine side of Christianity also, to teach them its strength as well as its beauty." In conclusion, it may be observed that no one had a higher opinion of the value of Dr. Neale's labours in the field of ancient and mediaeval hymnology than the one man whose competency to speak with authority on such a point Dr. Neale himself would assuredly have rated above that of all others. Over and over again Dr. Neale pays a tribute to the services rendered by Archbishop Trench in this domain; and the present sketch cannot more fitly close than with the testimony which Archbishop Trench has given of his sense of the services rendered by Dr. Neale. The last words of his preface to his Sacred Latin Poetry (ed. 1864) are:—" I will only, therefore, mention that by patient researches in almost all European lands, he [Dr. Neale] has brought to light a multitude of hymns unknown before: in a treatise on sequences, properly so-called, has for the first time explained their essential character; while to him the English reader owes versions of some of the best hymns, such as often successfully overcome the almost insuperable difficulties which many among them present to the translator." [Rev. J. H. Overton, D.D.] Dr. Neale's original hymns and translations appeared in the following works, most of which are referred to in the preceding article, and all of which are grouped together here to facilitate reference:— (1) Hymns for Children. Intended chiefly for Village Schools. London, Masters, 1842. (2) Hymns for the Sick. London, Masters, 1843, improved ed. 1849. (3) Hymns for the Young. A Second Series of Hymns for Children. London, Masters, 1844. (4) Songs and Ballads for Manufacturers. London, Masters, 1844. (5) Hymns for Children. A Third Series. London, Masters, 1846. (6) Mediaeval Hymns and Sequences. London, Masters. 1851; 2nd ed. 1861; 3rd. ed. 1863. (7) Hymnal Noted. London, Masters & Novello, 1852: enlarged 1854. Several of the translations were by other hands. Musical editions edited by the Rev. T. Helmore. It is from this work that a large number of Dr. Neale's translations from the Latin are taken. (8) Carols for Christmas and Eastertide. 1853. (9) Songs and Ballads for the People. 1855. (10) The Rhythm of Bernard de Morlaix, Monk of Cluny, on the Celestial Country. London, Hayes, 1st ed. 1858: 3rd ed., with revision of text, 1861. It contains both the Latin and the English translation. (11) Hymns of The Eastern Church, Translated with Notes and an Introduction. London, Hayes, 1862: 2nd ed. 1862: 3rd ed. 1866 : 4th ed., with Music and additional notes, edited by The Very Rev. S. G. Hatherly, Mus. B., Archpriest of the Patriarchal (Ecumenical Throne. London, Hayes, 1882. Several of these translations and notes appeared in The Ecclesiastic and Theologian, in 1853. (12) Hymns, Chiefly Mediaeval, on the Joys and Glories of Paradise. London, Hayes, 1865. This work contains notes on the hymns, and the Latin texts of the older amongst them. (13) Original Sequences, Hymns, and other Ecclesiastical Verses. London, Hayes, 1866. This collection of Original verse was published posthumously by Dr. Littledale. In addition to these works Dr. Neale published collections of Latin verse as:— 1.) Hymni Ecclesiae e Breviariis quibusdam et Missalibus Gallicanis, Germanis, Hispanis, Lusitanis, desumpti. Oxford & Lond. J. H. Parker, 1851: and (2) Sequentiae e Missalibus Germanicis, Anglicis, Gallicis, aliisque Medii Aevi collectae. Oxford & Lond. J. H. Parker, 1852. A few of his translations appeared from time to time in The Ecclesiastic; and a few of his original hymns in The Christian Remembrancer. In the collection compiled for use at St. Margaret's, East Grinstead, St. Margaret's Hymnal, Printed Privately for the use of the Community only, 1875, there are several of his hymns not traceable elsewhere. [Many of his translations and original compositions are not listed here]. Some of the original hymns in common use which remain to be noted are:— i. From Hymns for Children, 1842. 1. No more sadness now, nor fasting. Christmas. 2. 0 Thou, Who through this holy week. Passiontide. 3. The day, 0 Lord, is spent. Evening. 4. The grass so green, the trees so tall. Morning of the Third Day. 5. Thou art gone up, 0 Lord, on high. Evening. 6. Thou, Who earnest from above. Whitsuntide. 7. With Thee, 0 Lord, begins the year. Circumcision, or, the New Year. ii. From Hymns for the Sick, 1843. 8. By no new path untried before. Support in Sickness. 9. Count not, the Lord's Apostle saith. Communion of the Sick. 10. Lord, if he sleepeth, he shall sure do well. Watching. 11. 0 Thou, Who rising long before the day. In a sleepless Night. 12. The Lord hath given, the Lord hath taken away. Death and Burial. 13. There is a stream, whose waters rise. In dangerous Sickness or Fever. 14. They slumber not nor sleep. Guardian Angels. 15. Thy servants militant below. In Affliction. iii. From Hymns for the Young, 2nd series, 1844. 16. Lord Jesus, Who shalt come with power. Ember Week in Advent. 17. 0 God, in danger and distress. In time of Trouble. 18. 0 God, we raise our hearts to Thee. Ember-Week in Advent. From this, "0 Lord, we come before Thee now” is taken. 19. 0 God, Who lovest to abide. Dedication of a Church. 20. 0 our Father, hear us now. Rogation. The first of three hymns on The Lord's Prayer. 21. 0 Saviour, Who hast call'd away. Death of a Minister. 22. 0 Thou, Who lov'st to send relief. In Sickness. 23. 0 Thou, Who once didst bless the ground. Ember-Week in September. 24. 0 Thou, Who, when Thou hadst begun. On going to Work. 25. Still, 0 Lord of hosts, we share. Rogation. The Second of his hymns on The Lord's Prayer. 26. Strangers and pilgrims here below. On entering a new Dwelling to reside there. 27. They whose course on earth is o'er. Communion of Saints. From this, "Those whom many a land divides," is taken. 2S. Till its holy hours are past. Rogation. The third of his hymns on The Lord's Prayer. iv. Songs and Ballads for Manufacturers, 1844. 29. Work is over; God must speed it. Evening. v. Hymns for Children, 3rd series, 1846. 30. Before Thy Face, 0 God of old. St. John the Baptist. 31. By pain, and weariness, and doubt. St. Stephen. 32. First of the twelvefold band that trod. St. James. 33. Four streams through happy Eden flow'd. St. Mark. 34. Is there one who sets his face. St. Bartholomew. From this "He, for man who suffered woe," is taken. 35. Not a single sight we view. St. Matthias. 36. 0 Great Physician of the soul. St. Luke. 37. 0 Heavenly Wisdom, hear our cry. Christmas. “0 Sapientia." 38. 0 Key of David, hailed by those. Christmas. "0 Clavis David." 39. 0 Root of Jesse, Thou on Whom. Christmas. “O Radix Jesse." 40. 0 Thou, on Whom the nations [Gentiles] wait. Christmas. "0 Rex Gentium." 41. 0 Thou, Who earnest down of old [to call] . Christmas. "0 Adonai." 42. 0 Thou, Whose Name is God with us. Christmas. "0 Emmanuel." 43. 0 Very God of Very God. Christmas. "0 Oriens." 44. Saints of God, whom faith united. SS. Simon and Jude. 45. Since the time that first we came. St. Andrew. From this, "Every bird that upward springs," is taken. 46. That love is mighty love indeed. St. Barnabas. 47. We cannot plead, as others may. St. Matthew. 48. We have not seen, we cannot see. St. Thomas. 49. Would we go when life is o'er? St. Peter. v. Carols for Christmas and Eastertide. 1853. 50. Gabriel's message does away. Christmas. 51. Joy and gladness be to king and peasant. Christmas. 52. Joy to thee, joy to thee, Day of our victory. Easter. 53. Sing Alleluia, all ye lands. Easter. 54. The world itself keeps Easter Day. Easter. From this "There stood three Marys by the tomb," is taken. 55. With Christ we share a mystic grave. Easter or Holy Baptism. vi. From Sequences, Hymns, &c, 1866. 56. Can it, Master, can it be? Maundy Thursday. 57. Need it is we raise our eyes. All Saints. 58. Prostrate fell the Lord of all things. Maundy Thursday. 59. Rear the column, high and stately. All Saints. 60. The Paschal moonlight almost past. Easter. 61. Though the Octave-rainbow sometimes. Low Sunday. 62. When the earth was full of darkness. St. Margaret. 63. Young and old must raise the lay. Christmas Carol. vi. From the St. Margaret's Hymnal, 1875. 64. O gracious God, Who bid'st me now. On Leaving Some. 65. Thou Who came to save Thy people. For a School. 66. Thy praise the holy Infants shewed. Holy Innocents. These 66 hymns now in common use by no means represent Dr. Neale's position in modern hymnody. Many others must be added thereto. Even then, although the total is very large, it but feebly represents and emphasises the enormous influence which Di. Neale has exercised over modern hymnody. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

John S. B. Monsell

1811 - 1875 Author of "Fight the Good Fight with All Thy Might" in The Lutheran Hymnal Monsell, John Samuel Bewley, L.L.D., son of Thomas Bewley Monsell, Archdeacon of Londonderry, was born at St. Columb's, Londonderry, March 2,1811, and educated at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A. 1832, LL.D. 1856). Taking Holy Orders in 1834, "he was successively Chaplain to Bishop Mant, Chancellor of the diocese of Connor, Rector of Ramoan, Vicar of Egham, diocese Worcester, and Rector of St. Nicholas's, Guildford. He died in consequence of a fall from the roof of his church, which was in the course of rebuilding, April 9, 1875. His prose works include Our New Vicar, 1867; The Winton Church Catechist, &c. His poetical works are:— (1) Hymns and Miscellaneous Poems, Dublin, W. Curry, Jun., & Co., 1837; (2) Parish Musings, or Devotional Poems, 1850; (3) Spiritual Songs for the Sundays and Holy Days throughout the Year. 1857 (People's Ed., 1875); (4) His Presence, not His Memory, 1855, 1858; (5) Hymns of Love and Praise for the Church's Year, 1863 (2nd ed. 1866); (6) The Passing Bell; Ode to The Nightingales, and Other Poems, 1867; (7) Litany Hymns, 1869; (8) The Parish Hymnal after the Order of The Book of Common Prayer, 1873; (9)Watches by the Cross, 1874; (10) Simon the Cyrenian; and Other Poems; (11) Nursery Carols. In these works several hymns which appeared in the earlier books are repeated in the later, and thus at first sight his compositions seem to be more in number than they really are. The total amounts to nearly 300, and of these about one-fourth are in common use. The most popular of these are, "God is love; that anthem olden"; "God of that glorious gift of grace"; "Holy offerings, rich and rare"; “Lord of the living harvest"; "Mighty Father, Blessed Son"; and "Sing to the Lord a joyful song." In addition to those which are annotated under their respective first lines, the following are in common use:— i. Appeared in his Hymns and Miscellaneous Poems, Dublin, 1837. 1. Birds have their quiet nests. Humility of Christ. 2. Dark and dim the day-light rose. Good Friday. 3. Friend of the friendless and the lone. Jesus, the Friend. 4. My God, what wondrous love was Thine. Whitsuntide. 5. O for a heart more fervent. Holiness desired. 6. O for the time when on the world. Missions. 7. The springtide hour brings leaf and flower. Spring. 8. This day the Lord is risen. Easter. 9. When cold our hearts and far from Thee. Teach us to Pray. 10. Why restless, why so weary? Providence. 11. Yes, I do feel, my God, that I am Thine. Assurance. ii. Appeared in his Parish Musings, 1850. 12. In Thee, my [O] God, will we rejoice. Trust in God. 13. Lord, dependent on Thy promise. Holy Baptism. 14. Members of Christ, Children of God. Confirmation. 15. So teach me, Lord, to number. The Old and New Year. 16. Soon [soon] and for ever. Death anticipated. 17. The broken, contrite heart oppress'd. Promises of God. 18. Thou art near, yes, Lord, I feel it. Divine Support. 19. Would'st thou learn the depths of sin? Passiontide. iii. Appeared in his Spiritual Songs, 1857. 20. A few bright leaders of her host. All Saints. 21. A happy, happy [merry, merry] Christmas. New Year's Day. 22. Blessed hope, that we the fallen [sinful]. Hope. 23. Heart in heart, and hand in hand. SS. Simon and Jude. 24. Jesus, my loving Lord! I know. Resignation. 25. Last Sunday of the work-day year. Sunday after Christmas Day. 26. Loved by God the Father. Holy Baptism. 27. Mercy, mercy, God the Father. Lent. 28. My head is low, my heart is sad. Confirmation. (Penitential.) 29. Oft doth the Christian's heart inquire. Christian Duty. 30. 0 God, most mighty, listen now. Charities. From "When languid frame or throbbing pulse." 31. 0 holy Sabbath day. Sunday. 32. 0 Lord, what records of Thy love. St. Barnabas. Sometimes, “Lord God, what records of Thy love." 33. 0 love, divine and golden. Holy Matrimony. From this, "Love divine and tender" is taken. 34. One lesson more the Church must learn. Waiting on God. From this, “One lesson Christ His own would teach" is taken. 35. Proudly in his [the] hall of judgment. Tuesday before Easter. 36. Sinful, sighing to be blest. Lent. 37. The Church of God, with equal care. St. James. 38. The journey done; The rest begun. Burial. 39. The simple trust that can confide. Trust. 40. Weary and sad, a wanderer from Thee. Lent. iv. Appeared, in his Hymns of Love and Praise, 1863, and 2nd ed., 1866. 41. Bounteous blesser of the seedtime. Sexagesima. Seed Time. 42. Brightly hopeful for the future. God's mercy through life. 43. Christ is risen! Alleluia! Easter. 44. Come and deck the grave with flowers. Easter Eve. 45. Fight the good fight with all thy might. Fight of Faith. 46. Holy Spirit, long expected. Whitsuntide. 47. Hours and days and months and years. The Circumcision. 48. I have no comfort but Thy love. The Comfort of Love. 49. I knew Thee in the land of drought. A Song of Love. 60. I think of Thee, my God by night. Evening. 61. Jesu, gentle Sufferer, say. Good Friday. 52. Labouring and heavy-laden. Lent. 53. Light of the world, we hail Thee. Missions. 54. Lord, to whom except to Thee? Holy Communion. 55. My sins, my sins, my Saviour. Ash Wednesday. 56. O'er the distant mountains breaking. Second Advent. 57. Other Name than our dear Lord's. Jesus All and in All. 58. Pity on us, heavenly Father. Litany Hymn for Lent. 59. Praise the Lord, rejoice, ye Gentiles. Advent, or Missions. 60. Rest of the weary, joy of the sad. Jesus, the Saviour and Friend. 61. Shadow of a mighty Rock. Jesus, the Rock of Ages. 62. Sing, 0 heaven; 0 earth rejoice. Ascension. 63. Sweet is the gentle voice of spring. Seed Time. 64. Sweet is Thy mercy, Lord. Divine Mercy. 65. Teach me to do the thing that pleaseth Thee. Divine Teaching. 66. The good old times, how glorious. Advent. 67. The world may in its wealth delight. Rejoicing in the Lord. An altered form of "Let others in their wealth delight." 68. Though Thou slay me, I will trust. Faith. 69. To Christ the Lord! The Incarnate Word. Christmas. 70. When I had wandered from His fold. The Love of God. v. Appeared in his Litany Hymns, 1869. 71. Lay the precious body, In the quiet grave. Burial. 72. My sins have taken such a hold on me. Litany of Repentance. vi. Appeared in his Parish Hymnal, 1873. 73. I hunger and I thirst. Septuagesima. Dr. Monsell’s hymns are as a whole bright, joyous, and musical; but they lack massiveness, concentration of thought, and strong emotion. A few only are of enduring excellence. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology 1907 ===================== Monsell, J, S. B., p. 762, ii. Additional hymns in common use include:— 1. Blessed Lord, Who, till the morning. Holy Scriptures. From his Spiritual Songs, 1857. 2. Christ incarnate in His poor. Christ in His Poor. From his Hymns of Love and Praise, 1863. 3. We ask for life, and mean thereby. Life and Work. From his Hymns of Love and Praise, 1863. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907) ==================== Monsell, J. S. B. Since the article on pp. 762-3 was written, copies of the original editions of Dr. Monsell's works have come into our hands, and from them we have to make the following corrections, the numbers following being those given to the first lines of the hymns on pp. 762-3:— 15. So teach me, &c. Hymns and Misc. Poems, 1837, p. 30. 17. The broken, &c. Hymns and Misc. Poems, 1837, p. 49. 18. Thou art near, &c. Hymns and Misc. Poems, 1837, p. 21. 19. Would'st thou, &c. Hymns and Misc. Poems, 1837, p. 14. 26. Loved by God, &c. Parish Hymnal, 1873, No. 181. 27. Mercy, mercy, &c. Prayers and Litanies, 1861, p. 119. 28. My head is low, &c. Hymns of Love and Praise, 1866, p. 125. 33. O Love divine, &c. Hymns of Love and Praise, p. 131. 38. The journey done, &c. Hymns of Love and Praise, p. 134. 40. Weary and sad, &c. Parish Hymnal, 1873, No. 209. 41-50. Hymns of Love and Praise, 1863. 51. See "Day of loss," &c, p. 282, i. 52. Labouring, &c. Prayers and Litanies, 1861, p. 116. 53-57. Hymns of Love and Praise, 1863. 58. Pity on us, &c. Prayers and Litanies, 1861, p. 125. 59. Praise the Lord, &c. Hymns of Love and Praise, 1863, p. 13. 60. 61, 62, 64, 65. Prayers and Litanies, 1861. 63, 66-70. Hymns of Love and Praise, 1863. 72. My sins, &c. Hymns of Love and Praise, 1866, p. 34. 73. I hunger, &c. Hymns of Love and Praise, 1866, p. 128. It will be seen from this list of additions and corrections that Dr. Monsell multiplied his works by giving much the same material under new titles, and that his Prayers and Litanies of 1861 were unknown to us when the original article was written. "We can sincerely add that few hymn writers are so perplexing to the annotator as Dr. Monsell. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

Jane Borthwick

1813 - 1897 Translator of "Jesus, Lead Thou On" in The Lutheran Hymnal Miss Jane Borthwick, the translator of this hymn and many others, is of Scottish family. Her sister (Mrs. Eric Findlater) and herself edited "Hymns from the Land of Luther" (1854). She also wrote "Thoughts for Thoughtful Hours (1859), and has contributed numerous poetical pieces to the "Family Treasury," under the signature "H.L.L." --Annotations of the Hymnal, Charles Hutchins, M.A. 1872. ================================= Borthwick, Jane, daughter of James Borthwick, manager of the North British Insurance Office, Edinburgh, was born April 9, 1813, at Edinburgh, where she still resides. Along with her sister Sarah (b. Nov. 26, 1823; wife of the Rev. Eric John Findlater, of Lochearnhead, Perthshire, who died May 2, 1886) she translated from the German Hymns from the Land of Luther, 1st Series, 1854; 2nd, 1855; 3rd, 1858; 4th, 1862. A complete edition was published in 1862, by W. P. Kennedy, Edinburgh, of which a reprint was issued by Nelson & Sons, 1884. These translations, which represent relatively a larger proportion of hymns for the Christian Life, and a smaller for the Christian Year than one finds in Miss Winkworth, have attained a success as translations, and an acceptance in hymnals only second to Miss Winkworth's. Since Kennedy's Hymnologia Christiana, 1863, in England, and the Andover Sabbath Hymn Book, 1858, in America, made several selections therefrom, hardly a hymnal in England or America has appeared without containing some of these translations. Miss Borthwick has kindly enabled us throughout this Dictionary to distinguish between the 61 translations by herself and the 53 by her sister. Among the most popular of Miss Borthwick's may be named "Jesus still lead on," and "How blessed from the bonds of sin;" and of Mrs. Findlater's "God calling yet!" and "Rejoice, all ye believers." Under the signature of H. L. L. Miss Borthwick has also written various prose works, and has contributed many translations and original poems to the Family Treasury, a number of which were collected and published in 1857, as Thoughts for Thoughtful Hours (3rd edition, enlarged, 1867). She also contributed several translations to Dr. Pagenstecher's Collection, 1864, five of which are included in the new edition of the Hymns from the Land of Luther, 1884, pp. 256-264. Of her original hymns the best known are “Come, labour on” and "Rest, weary soul.” In 1875 she published a selection of poems translated from Meta Heusser-Schweizer, under the title of Alpine Lyrics, which were incorporated in the 1884 edition of the Hymns from the Land of Luther. She died in 1897. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ======================== Borthwick, Jane, p. 163, ii. Other hymns from Miss Borthwick's Thoughtful Hours, 1859, are in common use:— 1. And is the time approaching. Missions. 2. I do not doubt Thy wise and holy will. Faith. 3. Lord, Thou knowest all the weakness. Confidence. 4. Rejoice, my fellow pilgrim. The New Year. 5. Times are changing, days are flying. New Year. Nos. 2-5 as given in Kennedy, 1863, are mostly altered from the originals. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907) ============= Works: Hymns from the Land of Luther

Charlotte Elliott

1789 - 1871 Author of "My God, My Father, While I Stray" in The Lutheran Hymnal Elliott, Charlotte, daughter of Charles Elliott, of Clapham and Brighton, and granddaughter of the Rev. H. Venn, of Huddersfield, was born March 18, 1789. The first 32 years of her life were spent mostly at Clapham. In 1823 she removed to Brighton, and died there Sept. 22, 1871. To her acquaintance with Dr. C. Malan, of Geneva, is attributed much of the deep spiritual-mindedness which is so prominent in her hymns. Though weak and feeble in body, she possessed a strong imagination, and a well-cultured and intellectual mind. Her love of poetry and music was great, and is reflected in her verse. Her hymns number about 150, a large percentage of which are in common use. The finest and most widely known of these are, "Just as I am” and "My God, my Father, while I stray." Her verse is characterized by tenderness of feeling, plaintive simplicity, deep devotion, and perfect rhythm. For those in sickness and sorrow she has sung as few others have done. Her hymns appeared in her brother's Psalms & Hymns and elsewhere as follows:— (1) Psalms and Hymns for Public, Private, and Social Worship; selected by the Rev. H. V. Elliott, &c., 1835-48. In this Selection her signature is "C. E." (2) The Christian Remembrancer Pocket Book. This was originally edited by Miss Kiernan, of Dublin. Miss Elliott undertook the editorship in 1834. (3) The Invalid's Hymn Book. This was originally compiled by Miss Kiernan, but before publication was re-arranged by Miss Elliott, who also added 23 hymns in the first edition., 1834. These were increased in the following edition to the sixth in 1854, when her contributions amounted to 112. From that date no change was made in the work. (4) Hours of Sorrow Cheered and Comforted; or, Thoughts in Verse, 1836. (5) Morning and Evening Hymns for a Week, printed privately in 1839 for sale for a benevolent institution in Brighton, and published in 1842. (6) Thoughts in Verse on Sacred Subjects, 1869. Miss Elliott's Poems were published, with a Memoir by her sister, Mrs. Babington, in 1873, and an additional volume of Leaves from her unpublished Journals and Poems, also appeared in 1870. In addition to her more important hymns, which are annotated under their respective first lines, there are in common use:— i. From The Invalid's Hymn-book, 1834-1841:— 1. Clouds and darkness round about thee. (1841.) Resignation. 2. Not willingly dost Thou afflict [reject]. (1841.) Divine Chastisement. 3. 0 God, may I look up to Thee. (1841.) Teach us to Pray. 4. This is enough; although 'twere sweet. (1834.) On being debarred from Divine Worship. 5. With tearful eyes I look around. (1841.) The Invitation "Come Unto Me." ii. From H. V. Elliott's Psalms & Hymns, 1835-1839:— 6. Glorious was that primal light. Christmas. 7. Hail, holy day, most blest, most dear. Easter. 8. My only Saviour, when I feel. Jesus His people's Rest. 9. Now let our heavenly plants and flowers. Monday Morning. 10. The Sabbath-day has reached its close. Sunday Evening. iii. From Miss Elliott's Hours of Sorrow, 1836:— 11. Father, when Thy child is dying. Prayer for a Departing Spirit. 12. Leaning on Thee, my Guide, my Friend. Death Anticipated. 13. My God, is any hour so sweet? The Hour of Prayer. 14. 0 faint and feeble-hearted. Resignation enforced. 15. There is a holy sacrifice. The Contrite Heart. iv. From her Hymns for a Week, 1839:— 16. Guard well thy lips; none, none can know. Thursday Morning. 17. There is a spot of consecrated ground. Pt. i. 18. This is the mount where Christ's disciples see. Pt. ii. Monday Evening. 19. This is the day to tune with care. Saturday Morning. v. From Thoughts in Verse on Sacred Subjects, 1869:— 20. As the new moons of old were given. On a Birthday. 21. I need no other plea. Pt. i. 22. I need no prayers to saints. Pt. ii. Christ, All in All. 23. Jesus, my Saviour, look on me. Christ, All in All. Several of the earlier of these hymns were repeated in the later works, and are thus sometimes attributed to the wrong work. [Rev. James Davidson, B.A.] -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================ Elliott, Charlotte, p. 328, i. Other hymns are:— 1. O how I long to reach my home. Heaven desired. From the Invalid's Hymn Book, 1834. 2. The dawn approaches, golden streaks. Second Advent. From Thoughts in Verse, &c, 1869. Of her hymns noted on p. 328, Nos. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,11, and 13, all appeared in the 1st edition of Elliott's Psalms & Hymns, 1835. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907) ======================== Elliott, Charlotte, pp. 328, i.; 1561, ii. Further research enables us to give amended dates to some of her hymns as follows:— 1. With tearful eyes I look around (No. 5). This is in the 1835 Appendix to The Invalid's Hymn Book. 2. My only Saviour, when I feel (No. 8). Also in the 1835 Appendix. 3. Father, when Thy child is dying (No. 11). In the 1833 Appendix. 4. I want that adorning divine, p. 559, i. In the Christian Remembrancer 1848, p. 22. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

George Duffield

1818 - 1888 Author of "Stand Up! - Stand Up for Jesus" in The Lutheran Hymnal Duffield, George, Jr., D.D., son of the Rev. Dr. Duffield, a Presbyterian Minister, was born at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Sept. 12, 1818, and graduated at Yale College, and at the Union Theological Seminary, New York. From 1840 to 1847 he was a Presbyterian Pastor at Brooklyn; 1847 to 1852, at Bloomfield, New Jersey; 1852 to 1861, at Philadelphia; 1861 to 1865, at Adrian, Michigan; 1865 to 1869, at Galesburg, Illinois; 1869, at Saginaw City, Michigan; and from 1869 at Ann Arbor and Lansing, Michigan. His hymns include;— 1. Blessed Saviour, Thee I love. Jesus only. One of four hymns contributed by him to Darius E. Jones's Temple Melodies, 1851. It is in 6 stanzas of 6 lines. In Dr. Hatfield's Church Hymnbook it is given in 3 stanzas. The remaining three hymns of the same date are:— 2. Parted for some anxious days. Family Hymn. 3. Praise to our heavenly Father, God. Family Union. 4. Slowly in sadness and in tears. Burial. 5. Stand up, stand up for Jesus. Soldiers of the Cross. The origin of this hymn is given in Lyra Sac. Americana, 1868, p. 298, as follows:— "I caught its inspiration from the dying words of that noble young clergyman, Rev. Dudley Atkins Tyng, rector of the Epiphany Church, Philadelphia, who died about 1854. His last words were, ‘Tell them to stand up for Jesus: now let us sing a hymn.' As he had been much persecuted in those pro-slavery days for his persistent course in pleading the cause of the oppressed, it was thought that these words had a peculiar significance in his mind; as if he had said, ‘Stand up for Jesus in the person of the downtrodden slave.' (Luke v. 18.)" Dr. Duffield gave it, in 1858, in manuscript to his Sunday School Superintendent, who published it on a small handbill for the children. In 1858 it was included in The Psalmist, in 6 stanzas of 8 lines. It was repeated in several collections and in Lyra Sac. Amer., 1868, from whence it passed, sometimes in an abbreviated form, into many English collections. [Rev. F. M. Bird, M.A.] - John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) See also in: Hymn Writers of the Church

Reginald Heber

1783 - 1826 Author of "The Son of God Goes Forth to War" in The Lutheran Hymnal Reginald Heber was born in 1783 into a wealthy, educated family. He was a bright youth, translating a Latin classic into English verse by the time he was seven, entering Oxford at 17, and winning two awards for his poetry during his time there. After his graduation he became rector of his father's church in the village of Hodnet near Shrewsbury in the west of England where he remained for 16 years. He was appointed Bishop of Calcutta in 1823 and worked tirelessly for three years until the weather and travel took its toll on his health and he died of a stroke. Most of his 57 hymns, which include "Holy, Holy, Holy," are still in use today. -- Greg Scheer, 1995 ==================== Heber, Reginald, D.D. Born at Malpas, April 21, 1783, educated at Brasenose College, Oxford; Vicar of Hodnet, 1807; Bishop of Calcutta, 1823; died at Trichinopoly, India, April 3, 1826. The gift of versification shewed itself in Heber's childhood; and his Newdigate prize poem Palestine, which was read to Scott at breakfast in his rooms at Brazenose, Oxford, and owed one of its most striking passages to Scott's suggestion, is almost the only prize poem that has won a permanent place in poetical literature. His sixteen years at Hodnet, where he held a halfway position between a parson and a squire, were marked not only by his devoted care of his people, as a parish priest, but by literary work. He was the friend of Milman, Gifford, Southey, and others, in the world of letters, endeared to them by his candour, gentleness, "salient playfulness," as well as learning and culture. He was on the original staff of The Quarterly Review; Bampton Lecturer (1815); and Preacher at Lincoln's Inn (1822). His edition of Jeremy Taylor is still the classic edition. During this portion of his life he had often had a lurking fondness for India, had traced on the map Indian journeys, and had been tempted to wish himself Bishop of Calcutta. When he was forty years old the literary life was closed by his call to the Episcopate. No memory of Indian annals is holier than that of the three years of ceaseless travel, splendid administration, and saintly enthusiasm, of his tenure of the see of Calcutta. He ordained the first Christian native—Christian David. His first visitation ranged through Bengal, Bombay, and Ceylon; and at Delhi and Lucknow he was prostrated with fever. His second visitation took him through the scenes of Schwartz's labours in Madras Presidency to Trichinopoly, where on April 3,1826, he confirmed forty-two persons, and he was deeply moved by the impression of the struggling mission, so much so that “he showed no appearance of bodily exhaus¬tion." On his return from the service ”He retired into his own room, and according to his invariable custom, wrote on the back of the address on Confirmation 'Trichinopoly, April 3, 1826.' This was his last act, for immediately on taking off his clothes, he went into a large cold bath, where he had bathed the two preceding mornings, but which was now the destined agent of his removal to Paradise. Half an hour after, his servant, alarmed at his long absence, entered the room and found him a lifeless corpse." Life, &c, 1830, vol. ii. p. 437. Heber's hymns were all written during the Hodnet period. Even the great missionary hymn, "From Greenland's icy mountains," notwithstanding the Indian allusions ("India's coral strand," "Ceylon's isle"), was written before he received the offer of Calcutta. The touching funeral hymn, "Thou art gone to the grave," was written on the loss of his first babe, which was a deep grief to him. Some of the hymns were published (1811-16) in the Christian Observer, the rest were not published till after his death. They formed part of a ms. collection made for Hodnet (but not published), which contained, besides a few hymns from older and special sources, contributions by Milman. The first idea of the collection appears in a letter in 1809 asking for a copy of the Olney Hymns, which he "admired very much." The plan was to compose hymns connected with the Epistles and Gospels, to be sung after the Nicene Creed. He was the first to publish sermons on the Sunday services (1822), and a writer in The Guardian has pointed out that these efforts of Heber were the germs of the now familiar practice, developed through the Christian Year (perhaps following Ken's Hymns on the Festivals), and by Augustus Hare, of welding together sermon, hymnal, and liturgy. Heber tried to obtain from Archbishop Manners Sutton and the Bishop of London (1820) authorization of his ms. collection of hymns by the Church, enlarging on the "powerful engine" which hymns were among Dissenters, and the irregular use of them in the church, which it was impossible to suppress, and better to regulate. The authorization was not granted. The lyric spirit of Scott and Byron passed into our hymns in Heber's verse; imparting a fuller rhythm to the older measures, as illustrated by "Oh, Saviour, is Thy promise fled," or the martial hymn, "The Son of God goes forth to war;" pressing into sacred service the freer rhythms of contemporary poetry (e.g. "Brightest and best of the sons of the morning"; "God that madest earth and heaven"); and aiming at consistent grace of literary expression.. Their beauties and faults spring from this modern spirit. They have not the scriptural strength of our best early hymns, nor the dogmatic force of the best Latin ones. They are too flowing and florid, and the conditions of hymn composition are not sufficiently understood. But as pure and graceful devotional poetry, always true and reverent, they are an unfailing pleasure. The finest of them is that majestic anthem, founded on the rhythm of the English Bible, "Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty." The greatest evidence of Heber's popularity as a hymnwriter, and his refined taste as a compiler, is found in the fact that the total contents of his ms. collection which were given in his posthumous Hymns written and adapted to the Weekly Church Service of the Year. London, J. Murray, 1827; which included 57 hymns by Heber, 12 by Milman, and 29 by other writers, are in common in Great Britain and America at the present time. [Rev. H. Leigh Bennett, M.A.] Of Bishop Heber's hymns, about one half are annotated under their respective first lines. Those given below were published in Heber's posthumous Hymns, &c, 1827. Some of them are in extensive use in Great Britain and America; but as they possess no special histories they are grouped together as from the Hymns, &c, 1827:— 1. Beneath our feet, and o'er our head. Burial. 2. Creator of the rolling flood. St. Peter's Day, or, Gospel for 6th Sunday after Trinity. 3. Lo, the lilies of the field. Teachings of Nature: or, Gospel for 15th Sunday after Trinity. 4. 0 God, by Whom the seed is given. Sexagesima. 6. 0 God, my sins are manifold. Forgiveness, or, Gospel for 22nd S. after Trinity. 6. 0 hand of bounty, largely spread. Water into Wine, or, Gospel for 2nd S. after Epiphany. 7. 0 King of earth, and air, and sea. Feeding the Multitude; or, Gospel for 4th S. in Lent. 8. 0 more than merciful, Whose bounty gave. Good Friday. 9. 0 most merciful! 0 most bountiful. Introit Holy Communion. 10. 0 Thou, Whom neither time nor space. God unsearchable, or, Gospel for 5th Sunday in Lent. 11. 0 weep not o'er thy children's tomb. Innocents Day. 12. Room for the proud! Ye sons of clay. Dives and Lazarus, or, Gospel for 1st Sunday after Trinity. 13. Sit thou on my right hand, my Son, saith the Lord. Ascension. 14. Spirit of truth, on this thy day. Whit-Sunday. 15. The feeble pulse, the gasping breath. Burial, or, Gospel for 1st S. after Trinity. 16. The God of glory walks His round. Septuagesima, or, the Labourers in the Marketplace. 17. The sound of war in earth and air. Wrestling against Principalities and Powers, or, Epistle for 2lst Sunday after Trinity. 18. The world is grown old, her pleasures are past. Advent; or, Epistle for 4th Sunday in Advent. 19. There was joy in heaven. The Lost Sheep; or, Gospel for 3rd S. after Trinity. 20. Though sorrows rise and dangers roll. St. James's Day. 21. To conquer and to save, the Son of God. Christ the Conqueror. 22. Virgin-born, we bow before Thee. The Virgin Mary. Blessed amongst women, or, Gospel for 3rd S. in Lent. 23. Wake not, 0 mother, sounds of lamentation. Raising the Widow's Son, or, Gospel for 16th S. after Trinity. 24. When on her Maker's bosom. Holy Matrimony, or, Gospel for 2nd S. after Epiphany. 25. When through the torn sail the wild tempest is streaming. Stilling the Sea, or, Gospel for 4th Sunday after Epiphany. 26. Who yonder on the desert heath. The Good Samaritan, or, Gospel for 13th Sunday after Trinity. This list is a good index of the subjects treated of in those of Heber's hymns which are given under their first lines, and shows that he used the Gospels far more than the Epistles in his work. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)


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