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Charles Wesley

1707 - 1788 Author of "Depth of mercy, can there be" in The Riverdale Hymn Book Charles Wesley, M.A. was the great hymn-writer of the Wesley family, perhaps, taking quantity and quality into consideration, the great hymn-writer of all ages. Charles Wesley was the youngest son and 18th child of Samuel and Susanna Wesley, and was born at Epworth Rectory, Dec. 18, 1707. In 1716 he went to Westminster School, being provided with a home and board by his elder brother Samuel, then usher at the school, until 1721, when he was elected King's Scholar, and as such received his board and education free. In 1726 Charles Wesley was elected to a Westminster studentship at Christ Church, Oxford, where he took his degree in 1729, and became a college tutor. In the early part of the same year his religious impressions were much deepened, and he became one of the first band of "Oxford Methodists." In 1735 he went with his brother John to Georgia, as secretary to General Oglethorpe, having before he set out received Deacon's and Priest's Orders on two successive Sundays. His stay in Georgia was very short; he returned to England in 1736, and in 1737 came under the influence of Count Zinzendorf and the Moravians, especially of that remarkable man who had so large a share in moulding John Wesley's career, Peter Bonier, and also of a Mr. Bray, a brazier in Little Britain. On Whitsunday, 1737, [sic. 1738] he "found rest to his soul," and in 1738 he became curate to his friend, Mr. Stonehouse, Vicar of Islington, but the opposition of the churchwardens was so great that the Vicar consented that he "should preach in his church no more." Henceforth his work was identified with that of his brother John, and he became an indefatigable itinerant and field preacher. On April 8, 1749, he married Miss Sarah Gwynne. His marriage, unlike that of his brother John, was a most happy one; his wife was accustomed to accompany him on his evangelistic journeys, which were as frequent as ever until the year 1756," when he ceased to itinerate, and mainly devoted himself to the care of the Societies in London and Bristol. Bristol was his headquarters until 1771, when he removed with his family to London, and, besides attending to the Societies, devoted himself much, as he had done in his youth, to the spiritual care of prisoners in Newgate. He had long been troubled about the relations of Methodism to the Church of England, and strongly disapproved of his brother John's "ordinations." Wesley-like, he expressed his disapproval in the most outspoken fashion, but, as in the case of Samuel at an earlier period, the differences between the brothers never led to a breach of friendship. He died in London, March 29, 1788, and was buried in Marylebone churchyard. His brother John was deeply grieved because he would not consent to be interred in the burial-ground of the City Road Chapel, where he had prepared a grave for himself, but Charles said, "I have lived, and I die, in the Communion of the Church of England, and I will be buried in the yard of my parish church." Eight clergymen of the Church of England bore his pall. He had a large family, four of whom survived him; three sons, who all became distinguished in the musical world, and one daughter, who inherited some of her father's poetical genius. The widow and orphans were treated with the greatest kindness and generosity by John Wesley. As a hymn-writer Charles Wesley was unique. He is said to have written no less than 6500 hymns, and though, of course, in so vast a number some are of unequal merit, it is perfectly marvellous how many there are which rise to the highest degree of excellence. His feelings on every occasion of importance, whether private or public, found their best expression in a hymn. His own conversion, his own marriage, the earthquake panic, the rumours of an invasion from France, the defeat of Prince Charles Edward at Culloden, the Gordon riots, every Festival of the Christian Church, every doctrine of the Christian Faith, striking scenes in Scripture history, striking scenes which came within his own view, the deaths of friends as they passed away, one by one, before him, all furnished occasions for the exercise of his divine gift. Nor must we forget his hymns for little children, a branch of sacred poetry in which the mantle of Dr. Watts seems to have fallen upon him. It would be simply impossible within our space to enumerate even those of the hymns which have become really classical. The saying that a really good hymn is as rare an appearance as that of a comet is falsified by the work of Charles Wesley; for hymns, which are really good in every respect, flowed from his pen in quick succession, and death alone stopped the course of the perennial stream. It has been the common practice, however for a hundred years or more to ascribe all translations from the German to John Wesley, as he only of the two brothers knew that language; and to assign to Charles Wesley all the original hymns except such as are traceable to John Wesley through his Journals and other works. The list of 482 original hymns by John and Charles Wesley listed in this Dictionary of Hymnology have formed an important part of Methodist hymnody and show the enormous influence of the Wesleys on the English hymnody of the nineteenth century. -- Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================== Charles Wesley, the son of Samuel Wesley, was born at Epworth, Dec. 18, 1707. He was educated at Westminster School and afterwards at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. In 1735, he took Orders and immediately proceeded with his brother John to Georgia, both being employed as missionaries of the S.P.G. He returned to England in 1736. For many years he engaged with his brother in preaching the Gospel. He died March 29, 1788. To Charles Wesley has been justly assigned the appellation of the "Bard of Methodism." His prominence in hymn writing may be judged from the fact that in the "Wesleyan Hymn Book," 623 of the 770 hymns were written by him; and he published more than thirty poetical works, written either by himself alone, or in conjunction with his brother. The number of his separate hymns is at least five thousand. --Annotations of the Hymnal, Charles Hutchins, M.A., 1872.

Josiah Conder

1789 - 1855 Person Name: J. Conder Author of "Day by day the manna fell" in Songs of Praise and Prayer Josiah Conder was born in London, in 1789. He became a publisher, and in 1814 became proprietor of "The Eclectic Review." Subsequently to 1824, he composed a series of descriptive works, called the "Modern Traveller," which appeared in thirty volumes. He also published several volumes of poems and hymns. He was the author of the first "Congregational Hymn Book" (1836). He died in 1855. --Annotations of the Hymnal, Charles Hutchins, M.A. 1872. ========================== Conder, Josiah, fourth son of Thomas Conder, engraver and bookseller, and grandson of the Rev. John Conder, D.D., first Theological Tutor of Homerton College, was born in Falcon Street (City); London, Sept. 17, 1789, and died Dec. 27, 1855. As author, editor and publisher he was widely known. For some years he was the proprietor and editor of the Eclectic Review, and also editor of the Patriot newspaper. His prose works were numerous, and include:— The Modern Traveller, 1830; Italy, 1831; Dictionary of Ancient and Modern Geography, 1834; Life of Bunyan, 1835; Protestant Nonconformity, 1818-19; The Law of the Sabbath, 1830; Epistle to the Hebrews (a translation), 1834; Literary History of the New Testament, 1845, Harmony of History with Prophecy, 1849, and others. His poetical works are:— (1) The Withered Oak,1805; this appeared in the Athenceum. (2) The Reverie, 1811. (3) Star in the East, 1824. (4) Sacred Poems, Domestic Poems, and Miscellaneous Poems, 1824. (5) The Choir and the Oratory; or, Praise and Prayer, 1837. Preface dated Nov. 8, 1836. (6) Hymns of Praise, Prayer, and Devout Meditation, 1856. This last work was in the press at the time of his death, and was revised and published by his son, the Rev. E. R. Conder, M.A. He also contributed many pieces to the magazines and to the Associated Minstrels, 1810, under the signature of " C." In 1838, selections from The Choir and Oratory were published with music by Edgar Sanderson, as Harmonia Sacra. A second volume was added in 1839. To Dr. Collyer’s (q.v.) Hymns, &c, he contributed 3 pieces signed "C"; and to Dr. Leifchild's Original Hymns, 1843, 8 hymns. As a hymn-book editor he was also well known. In 1836 he edited The Congregational Hymn Book: a Supplement to Dr. Watts’s Psalms and Hymns (2nd ed. 1844). To this collection he contributed fifty-six of his own hymns, some of which had previously appeared in The Star in the East, &c. He also published in 1851 a revised edition of Dr. Watts's Psalms and Hymns, and in the game year a special paper on Dr. Watte as The Poet of the Sanctuary, which was read before the Congregational Union at Southampton. The value of his work as Editor of the Congregational Hymn Book is seen in the fact that eight out of every ten of the hymns in that collection are still in use either in Great Britain or America. As a hymn writer Conder ranks with some of the best of the first half of the present century. His finest hymns are marked by much elevation of thought expressed in language combining both force and beauty. They generally excel in unity, and in some the gradual unfolding of the leading idea is masterly. The outcome of a deeply spiritual mind, they deal chiefly with the enduring elements of religion. Their variety in metre, in style, and in treatment saves them from the monotonous mannerism which mars the work of many hymn writers. Their theology, though decidedly Evangelical, is yet of a broad and liberal kind. Doubtless Conder's intercourse with many phases of theological thought as Editor of the Eclectic Review did much to produce this catholicity, which was strikingly shewn by his embodying many of the collects of the Book of Common Prayer, rendered into verse, in his Choir and Oratory. Of his versions of the Psalms the most popular are "How honoured, how dear" (84th), and "O be joyful in the Lord" (100th). His hymns in most extensive use are," Bread of heaven, on Thee I feed; " “Beyond, beyond that boundless sea;" "The Lord is King, lift up thy voice" (this last is one of his best); "Day by day the manna fell;" "How shall I follow him I serve;" "Heavenly Father, to whose eye" (all good specimens of his subdued and pathetic style); and "O shew me not my Saviour dying." This last is full of lyric feeling, and expresses the too often forgotten fact that the Church has a living though once crucified Lord. The popularity of Conder's hymns may be gathered from the fact that at the present time more of them are in common use in Great Britain and America than those of any other writer of the Congregational body, Watts and Doddridge alone excepted. [Rev. W. Garrett Horder] In addition to the hymns named above and others which are annotated under their respective first lines, the following, including two already named (4,16), are also in common use:— i. From Dr. Collyer's Hymns, &c, 1812. 1. When in the hours of lonely woe. Lent. ii. From The Star in the East, &c, 1824. 2. Be merciful, O God of grace. Ps. lxvii. 3. For ever will I bless the Lord. Ps. xxxiv. 4. How honoured, how dear. Ps. lxxxiv. 5. Now with angels round the throne. Doxology. 6. O Thou God, Who hearest prayer. Lent. Dated Sept. 1820. Usually abbreviated. iii. From The Congregational Hymn Book, 1836. 7. Blessed be God, He is not strict. Longsuffering of God. 8. Followers of Christ of every name. Communion of Saints. 9. Grant me, heavenly Lord, to feel. Zeal in Missions desired. 10. Grant, 0 Saviour, to our prayers. Collect 5th S. after Trinity. 11. Head of the Church, our risen Lord. Church Meetings. 12. Holy, holy, holy Lord, in the highest heaven, &c. Praise to the Father. 13. Jehovah's praise sublime. Praise. 14. Leave us not comfortless. Holy Communion. 15. Lord, for Thv Name's sake! such the plea. In National Danger. 16. O be joyful in the Lord. Ps. c. 17. 0 breathe upon this languid frame. Baptism of Holy Spirit desired. 18. 0 give thanks to Him Who made. Thanksgiving for Daily Mercies. 19. 0 God, Protector of the lowly. New Year. 20. 0 God, to whom the happy dead. Burial. 21. 0 God, Who didst an equal mate. Holy Matrimony. 22. 0 God, Who didst Thy will unfold. Holy Scriptures. 23. 0 God, Who dost Thy sovereign might. Prayer Meetings. 24. 0 how shall feeble flesh and blood. Salvation through Christ. 25. 0 how should those be clean who bear. Purity desired for God's Ministers. 26. 0 say not, think not in thy heart. Pressing Onward. 27. 0 Thou divine High Priest. Holy Communion. 28. 0 Thou Who givest all their food. Harvest. 29. 0 Thou Whose covenant is sure. Holy Baptism. 30. Praise on Thee, in Zion-gates. Sunday. 31. Praise the God of all creation. Doxology 32. See the ransomed millions stand. Praise to Christ. 33. The heavens declare His glory. Ps. xix. 34. Thou art the Everlasting Word. Praise to Christ. 35. Thy hands have made and fashioned me. Thanks for Daily Mercies. 36. To all Thy faithful people, Lord. For Pardon. 37. To His own world He came. Ascension. 38. To our God loud praises give. Ps. cxxxvi. 39. Upon a world of guilt and night. Purification of B.V.M. 40. Welcome, welcome, sinner, hear. Invitation to Christ. 41. Wheresoever two or three. Continued Presence of Christ desired. iv. From The Choir and the Oratory, 1837. 42. Baptised into our Saviour's death. Holy Baptism. 43. In the day of my [thy] distress. Ps. xx. 44. 0 comfort to the dreary. Christ the Comforter. v. From Leifchild's Original Hymns, 1843. 45. I am Thy workmanship, 0 Lord. God the Maker and Guardian. 46. 0 Lord, hadst Thou been here! But when. The Resurrection of Lazarus. 47. 'Tis not that I did choose Thee. Chosen of God. This is altered in the Church Praise Book, N. Y., 1882, to “Lord, 'tis not that I did choose Thee," thereby changing the metre from 7.6 to 8.5. vi. From Hymns of Praise, Prayer, &c, 1856. 48. Comrades of the heavenly calling. The Christian race. When to these 48 hymns those annotated under their respective first lines are added, Conder’s hymns in common use number about 60 in all. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) =================== Conder, Josiah, p. 256, i. Other hymns are:— 1. O love beyond the reach of thought. The love of God. 2. O Thou, our Head, enthroned on high. Missions. 3. Son of David, throned in light. Divine Enlightenment desired. 4. Thou Lamb of God for sinners slain. Christ the Head of the Church. From "Substantial Truth, 0 Christ, Thou art." These hymns are all from his Hymns of Praise, &c, 1856. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

Francis Bottome

1823 - 1894 Person Name: F. Bottome Author of "Love of Jesus, all divine" in The Church Hymnal Bottome, F., S.T.D., was born in Derbyshire, England, May 26, 1823. In 1850, having removed to America, he entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopalian Church; and in 1872 he received the degree of S.T.D. from Dickinson's College, Carlisle, Penn. In addition to assisting in the compilation of B. P. Smith's Gospel Hymns, London, 1872: Centenary Singer, 1869; Hound Lake, 1872, he has written:— 1. Come, Holy Ghost, all sacred fire. Invocation of the Holy Spirit. Appeared in R. P. Smith's Gospel Hymns, 1872. It is in several collections, including the Ohio Hymn Book of the Evangelical Association, 1881, No. 364. 2. Full salvation, full salvation. Joy of full Salvation. Written in 1871, and published in a collection by Dr. Cullis of Boston, 1873. Also in the Ohio Hymn Book, 1881, No. 384. 3. Love of Jesus, all divine. Love of Jesus. Written in 1872, and published in his Hound Lake, 1872. It is in several collections. 4. O bliss of the purified, bliss of the free. Sanctification. Written in 1869, and published in the Revivalist, and numerous hymn-books in America, including the Ohio Hymn Book as above, 1881, No. 477, &c. His hymns, "Sweet rest in Jesus"; and "Oneness in Jesus," are also found in several collections for evangelistic services. -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Catherine Winkworth

1827 - 1878 Person Name: C. Winkworth Translator of "Lord, Thou Art My Rock of Strength" in Gloria Deo Catherine Winkworth (b. Holborn, London, England, 1827; d. Monnetier, Savoy, France, 1878) is well known for her English translations of German hymns; her translations were polished and yet remained close to the original. Educated initially by her mother, she lived with relatives in Dresden, Germany, in 1845, where she acquired her knowledge of German and interest in German hymnody. After residing near Manchester until 1862, she moved to Clifton, near Bristol. A pioneer in promoting women's rights, Winkworth put much of her energy into the encouragement of higher education for women. She translated a large number of German hymn texts from hymnals owned by a friend, Baron Bunsen. Though often altered, these translations continue to be used in many modern hymnals. Her work was published in two series of Lyra Germanica (1855, 1858) and in The Chorale Book for England (1863), which included the appropriate German tune with each text as provided by Sterndale Bennett and Otto Goldschmidt. Winkworth also translated biographies of German Christians who promoted ministries to the poor and sick and compiled a handbook of biographies of German hymn authors, Christian Singers of Germany (1869). Bert Polman ======================== Winkworth, Catherine, daughter of Henry Winkworth, of Alderley Edge, Cheshire, was born in London, Sep. 13, 1829. Most of her early life was spent in the neighbourhood of Manchester. Subsequently she removed with the family to Clifton, near Bristol. She died suddenly of heart disease, at Monnetier, in Savoy, in July, 1878. Miss Winkworth published:— Translations from the German of the Life of Pastor Fliedner, the Founder of the Sisterhood of Protestant Deaconesses at Kaiserworth, 1861; and of the Life of Amelia Sieveking, 1863. Her sympathy with practical efforts for the benefit of women, and with a pure devotional life, as seen in these translations, received from her the most practical illustration possible in the deep and active interest which she took in educational work in connection with the Clifton Association for the Higher Education of Women, and kindred societies there and elsewhere. Our interest, however, is mainly centred in her hymnological work as embodied in her:— (1) Lyra Germanica, 1st Ser., 1855. (2) Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858. (3) The Chorale Book for England (containing translations from the German, together with music), 1863; and (4) her charming biographical work, the Christian Singers of Germany, 1869. In a sympathetic article on Miss Winkworth in the Inquirer of July 20, 1878, Dr. Martineau says:— "The translations contained in these volumes are invariably faithful, and for the most part both terse and delicate; and an admirable art is applied to the management of complex and difficult versification. They have not quite the fire of John Wesley's versions of Moravian hymns, or the wonderful fusion and reproduction of thought which may be found in Coleridge. But if less flowing they are more conscientious than either, and attain a result as poetical as severe exactitude admits, being only a little short of ‘native music'" Dr. Percival, then Principal of Clifton College, also wrote concerning her (in the Bristol Times and Mirror), in July, 1878:— "She was a person of remarkable intellectual and social gifts, and very unusual attainments; but what specially distinguished her was her combination of rare ability and great knowledge with a certain tender and sympathetic refinement which constitutes the special charm of the true womanly character." Dr. Martineau (as above) says her religious life afforded "a happy example of the piety which the Church of England discipline may implant.....The fast hold she retained of her discipleship of Christ was no example of ‘feminine simplicity,' carrying on the childish mind into maturer years, but the clear allegiance of a firm mind, familiar with the pretensions of non-Christian schools, well able to test them, and undiverted by them from her first love." Miss Winkworth, although not the earliest of modern translators from the German into English, is certainly the foremost in rank and popularity. Her translations are the most widely used of any from that language, and have had more to do with the modern revival of the English use of German hymns than the versions of any other writer. -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ============================ See also in: Hymn Writers of the Church

Augustus Toplady

1740 - 1778 Person Name: Augustus M. Toplady, 1740-1778 Author of "Happiness, delightful name" in Hymnal and Liturgies of the Moravian Church Toplady, Augustus Montague, the author of "Rock of Ages," was born at Farnham, Surrey, November 4, 1740. His father was an officer in the British army. His mother was a woman of remarkable piety. He prepared for the university at Westminster School, and subsequently was graduated at Trinity College, Dublin. While on a visit in Ireland in his sixteenth year he was awakened and converted at a service held in a barn in Codymain. The text was Ephesians ii. 13: "But now, in Christ Jesus, ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ." The preacher was an illiterate but warm-hearted layman named Morris. Concerning this experience Toplady wrote: "Strange that I, who had so long sat under the means of grace in England, should be brought nigh unto God in an obscure part of Ireland, amidst a handful of God's people met together in a barn, and under the ministry of one who could hardly spell his name. Surely this is the Lord's doing, and it is marvelous." In 1758, through the influence of sermons preached by Dr. Manton on the seventeenth chapter of John, he became an extreme Calvinist in his theology, which brought him later into conflict with Mr. Wesley and the Methodists. He was ordained to the ministry in the Church of England in 1762, and in 1768 he became vicar of Broadhembury, a small living in Devonshire, which he held until his death. The last two or three years of his life he passed in London, where he preached in a chapel on Orange Street. His last sickness was of such a character that he was able to make a repeated and emphatic dying testimony. A short time before his death he asked his physician what he thought. The reply was that his pulse showed that his heart was beating weaker every day. Toplady replied with a smile: "Why, that is a good sign that my death is fast approaching; and, blessed be God, I can add that my heart beats stronger and stronger every day for glory." To another friend he said: "O, my dear sir, I cannot tell you the comforts I feel in my soul; they are past expression. . . . My prayers are all converted into praise." He died of consumption August 11, 1778. His volume of Psalms and Hymns for Public and Private Worship was published in 1776. Of the four hundred and nineteen hymns which it contained, several were his own productions. If on a quiet sea 446 Rock of ages, cleft for me 279 Hymn Writers of the Church, 1915 by Charles S. Nutter =============================================== Toplady, Augustus Montague, M.A. The life of Toplady has been repeatedly and fully written, the last, a somewhat discursive and slackly put together book, yet matterful, by W. Winters (1872). Summarily, these data may be here given: he was born at Farnham, in Surrey, on November 4, 1740. His father, Richard Toplady, was a Major in the British array, and was killed at the siege of Carthagena (1741) soon after the birth of his son. His widowed mother placed him at the renowned Westminster school, London. By-and-by circumstances led her to Ireland, and young Augustus was entered at Trinity College, Dublin, where he completed his academical training, ultimately graduating M.A. He also received his "new birth" in Ireland under remarkable conditions, as he himself tells us with oddly mixed humility and lofty self-estimate, as "a favourite of heaven," common to his school:— "Strange that I who had so long sat under the means of grace in England should be brought right unto God in an obscure part of Ireland, midst a handful of people met together in a barn, and by the ministry of one who could hardly spell his own name. Surely it was the Lord's doing and is marvellous. The excellency of such power must be of God and cannot be of man. The regenerating spirit breathes not only on whom but likewise, when and where and as He listeth." Toplady received orders in the Church of England on June 6, 1762, and after some time was appointed to Broadhembury. His Psalms and Hymns of 1776 bears that he was then “B.A." and Vicar of Broadhembury. Shortly thereafter be is found in London as minister of the Chapel of the French Calvinists in Leicester Fields. He was a strong and partizan Calvinist, and not well-informed theologically outside of Calvinism. We willingly and with sense of relief leave unstirred the small thick dust of oblivion that has gathered on his controversial writings, especially his scurrilous language to John Wesley because of his Arminianism, as we do John Wesley's deplorable misunderstanding and misrepresentation of Calvinism. Throughout Toplady lacked the breadth of the divine Master's watchword "Forbid him not, for he that is not against us is for us" (St. Luke ix. 50). He was impulsive, rash-spoken, reckless in misjudgment; but a flame of genuine devoutness burned in the fragile lamp of his overtasked and wasted body. He died on August 11, 1778. The last edition of his works is in 6 vols., 8 vo., 1825. An accurate reproduction of most of his genuine hymns was one of the reprints of Daniel Sedgwick, 1860. His name occurs and recurs in contemporary memoirs and ecclesiastical histories, e.g., in Tyerman's Life of John Wesley. The reader will find in their places annotations on the several hymns of Toplady, and specially on his "Rock of Ages,” a song of grace that has given him a deeper and more inward place in millions of human hearts from generation to generation than almost any other hymnologist of our country, not excepting Charles Wesley. Besides the "Rock of Ages" must be named, for power, intensity, and higher afflatus and nicer workmanship, "Object of my first desire,” and "Deathless principle arise." It is to be regretted that the latter has not been more widely accepted. It is strong, firm, stirring, and masterful. Regarded critically, it must be stated that the affectionateness with which Toplady is named, and the glow and passion of his faith and life, and yearning after holiness, have led to an over-exaltation of him as a hymnwriter. Many of his hymns have been widely used, and especially in America, and in the Evangelical hymnbooks of the Church of England. Year by year, however, the number in use is becoming less. The reason is soon found. He is no poet or inspired singer. He climbs no heights. He sounds no depths. He has mere vanishing gleams of imaginative light. His greatness is the greatness of goodness. He is a fervent preacher, not a bard. [Rev. A. B. Grosart, D.D., LL.D.] Toplady's hymns and poetical pieces were published in his:— (1) Poems on Sacred Subjects wherein The Fundamental Doctrines of Christianity, with many other interesting Points, are occasionally introduced. . . Dublin: Printed by S. Powell, in Crane-lane, MDCCLIX.; (2) his Psalms & Hymns for Public and Private Worship, 1776; (3) in The Gospel Magazine, 1771-1776; and (4) in Hymns and Sacred Poems on a variety of Divine Subjects, &c. D. Sedgwick's reprint, 1860. His Works, with a Memoir by W. Row, were published in 6 volumes, in 1794. Walter How was also the editor of the 2nd and some later editions of the Psalms & Hymns. He was a most careless editor, and attributed several hymns by C. Wesley and others to Toplady. The following additional hymns in common use together with centos indicated in the sub-lines, are from:— i. His Poems on Sacred Subjects, 1759. 1. Can my heaven-born soul submit? All for Christ. 2. Come from on high, my King and God. Holiness desired. (1.) 0 might this worthless heart of mine. 3. Earnest of future bliss. The Witness of the Spirit. 4. From Thy supreme tribunal, Lord. Christ's Righteousness a Refuge. (1.) The spotless Saviour lived for me. 5. Great God, Whom heaven, and earth, and sea. For Peace. 6. I saw, and lo! a countless throng. Saints' Days. Revised form in the Gospel Magazine, 1774, p. 449. 7. Immovable our hope remains. Divine Faithfulness. 8. Jesus, God of love, attend. Divine Worship. Pt. ii. is "Prayer can mercy's door unlock." 9. Jesus, Thy power I fain would feel. Lent. 10. Lord, I feel a carnal mind. Mind of Christ desired. 11. My yielding heart dissolves as wax. On behalf of Arians, &c. (1.) 0 Jesus, manifest Thy grace. 12. Not to myself I owe. Praise for Conversion, (1.) Not to ourselves we owe. (2.) The Father's grace and love. 13. 0 that my heart was right with Thee. Dedication to God desired. 14. 0 Thou that hearest the prayer of faith. Christ the Propitiation. 15. 0 Thou Who didst Thy glory leave. Thanksgiving for Redemption. 16. 0 when wilt Thou my Saviour be. Trust in Jesus. (1.) Jesus, the sinner's Rest Thou art. 17. Redeemer, whither should I flee? Safety in the Cross. 18. Remember, Lord, that Jesus bled. Pardon. 19. Surely Christ thy griefs hath borne. Redemption. Revised text in Gospel Magazine, 1774, p. 548. (1.) Weary sinner, keep thine eyes. (2.) Weeping soul, no longer mourn. ii. From the Gospel Magazine. 20. Compared with Christ, in all besides. Christ All in All. Feb. 1772. 21. Eternal Hallelujahs Be to the Father given. Holy Trinity, Dec. 1774. 22. From whence this fear and unbelief. Reviving Faith, Feb. 1772. 23. How vast the benefits divine. Redemption. Dec. 1774. From this "Not for the works which we have done" is taken. 24. Whom have I in heaven but Thee? Christ All and in All, Feb. 1772. From this "If my Lord Himself reveal" is taken. 25. Jesus, immutably the same. Jesus, the True Vine. June, 1771. All these hymns, together with "O precious blood, 0 glorious death" (Death of Christ), are in D. Sedgwick's reprint of Toplady's Hymns, &c, 1860. We have met with several other hymns to which Toplady's name is appended, but for this we can find no authority whatever. -- Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Sarah Flower Adams

1805 - 1848 Person Name: Sarah Flower Adams, 1805-1848 Author of "Part in peace: Christ's life was peace" in The Book of Praise Adams, Sarah, nee Flower. born at Harlow, Essex, Feb. 22nd, 1805; died in London, Aug. 14, 1848, and was buried at Harlow, Aug. 21,1848. She was the younger daughter of Mr. Benjamin Flower, editor and proprietor, of The Cambridge Intelligencer; and was married, in 1834, to William B. Adams, a civil engineer. In 1841 she published Vivia Perpetua, a dramatic poem dealing with the conflict of heathenism and Christianity, in which Vivia Perpetua suffered martyrdom; and in 1845, The Flock at the Fountain; a catechism and hymns for children. As a member of the congregation of the Rev. W. J. Fox, an Unitarian minister in London, she contributed 13 hymns to the Hymns and Anthems, published by C. Fox, Lond., in 1841, for use in his chapel. Of these hymns the most widely known are— "Nearer,my God,to Thee," and "He sendeth sun, He sendeth shower." The remaining eleven, most of which have come into common use, more especially in America, are:— Creator Spirit! Thou the first. Holy Spirit. Darkness shrouded Calvary. Good Friday. Gently fall the dews of eve. Evening. Go, and watch the Autumn leaves. Autumn. O hallowed memories of the past. Memories. O human heart! thou hast a song. Praise. O I would sing a song of praise. Praise. O Love! thou makest all things even. Love. Part in Peace! is day before us? Close of Service. Sing to the Lord! for His mercies are sure. Praise. The mourners came at break of day. Easter. Mrs. Adams also contributed to Novello's musical edition of Songs for the Months, n. d. Nearly all of the above hymns are found in the Unitarian collections of Great Britain, and America. In Martineau's Hymns of Praise & Prayer, 1873, No. 389, there is a rendering by her from Fenelon: —" Living or dying, Lord, I would be Thine." It appeared in the Hymns and Anthems, 1841. -John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

John Baptiste Calkin

1827 - 1905 Person Name: J. B. Calkin Composer of "RAMOTH" in The Riverdale Hymn Book John Baptiste Calkin United Kingdom 1827-1905. Born in London, he was reared in a musical atmosphere. Studying music under his father, and with three brothers, he became a composer, organist, and music teacher. At 19, he was appointed organist, precenter, and choirmaster at St. Columbia's College, Dublin, Ireland, 1846 to 1853. From 1853 to 1863 we was organist and choirmaster at Woburn Chapel, London. From 1863 to 1868, he was organist of Camden Road Chapel. From 1870 to 1884 he was organist at St. Thomas's Church, Camden Town. In 1883 he became professor at Guildhall School of Music and concentrated on teaching and composing. He was also a professor of music and on the council of Trinity College, London, and a member of the Philharmonic Society (1862). In 1893 he was a fellow of the College of Organists. John and wife, Victoire, had four sons, each following a musical carer. He wrote much music for organ and scored string arrangements, sonatas, duos, etc. He died at Hornsey Rise Gardens. John Perry

William Hammond

1719 - 1783 Person Name: Rev. William Hammond Author of "Lord, we come before Thee now" in Hymns and Tunes for Schools Hammond, William, B.A, born at Battle, Sussex, Jan. 6, 1719, and educated at St. John's College, Cambridge. In 1743 he joined the Calvinistic Methodists; and in 1745, the Moravian Brethren. He died in London, Aug. 19, 1783, and was buried in the Moravian burial-ground, Sloane Street, Chelsea. He left an Autobiography in Greek, which remains unpublished. His original hymns, together with his translations from the Latin, were published in his:— Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs. To which is prefix'd A Preface, giving some Account of a Weak Faith, and a Full Assurance of Faith; and briefly stating the Doctrine of Sanctification; and shewing a Christian's Completeness, Perfection, and Happiness in Christ. By William Hammond, A.B., late of St. John's College, Cambridge. London: Printed by W. Strahan; and sold by J. Oswald, at the Rose and Crown in the Poultry, mdccxlv. A few of his original hymns from scriptural fidelity and earnestness have attained to a foremost position amongst English hymns. These include, "Awake, and sing the song," and "Lord, we come before Thee now." His translations of Latin hymns were amongst the earliest published after those contained in the Primers and other devotional works of 16th and 17th centuries. They are of merit, and worthy of attention. Greater use might also be made of his original compositions. In addition to those named above, the following are also in common use:— 1. Brightness of the Father's Face. God the Son. 2. How great the Christian's portion is. Possession of All in Christ. 3. If Jesus is yours. God's unchangeable Love. 4. In Thine own appointed way. Divine Worship. 5. Jesus, Who died the [a] world to save. Easter. 6. Lord, if on earth the thought of Thee. Heaven anticipated. 1. Now with joint consent we sing. Divine Worship. 8. O Lord, how little do we know. Quinquagesima. 9. Would you win a soul to God ? The Gospel Message. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

August Hermann Francke

1663 - 1727 Person Name: A. H. Francke Author of "Lord, Thou Art My Rock of Strength" in Gloria Deo Francke, August Hermann, son of Johann Francke, a lawyer in Lubeck, was born at Lubeck, March 22, 1663. He studied at the Universities of Erfurt, Kiel, and Leipzig, graduated M.A. at Leipzig, 1685, and thereafter lectured on Biblical subjects at Leipzig for some time. About Michaelmas, 1687, he went to Lüneburg to work under the pious superintendent C. H. Sandhagen; and there while composing his first sermon (on St. John xx. 31) he underwent that change which made him call Lüneburg his spiritual birthplace. After spending the greater part of 1688 at Hamburg, he stayed two months with P. J. Spener at Dresden, and then returned about Lent, 1689, to Leipzig, where he resumed his Biblical lectures until the old orthodox party procured an edict forbidding them in the beginning of 1690. On March 10, 1690, he received a call to become diaconus of the Augustine Church at Erfurt, and there, by his stirring exhortations to renewal of heart, living faith and holy life, he drew many, even Roman Catholics, around him, but by a combination of the old orthodox Lutherans with the Romanists he was expelled from Erfurt, Sept. 27, 1691. After a lengthened visit to P. J. Spener, then Probst of St Nicholas's Church, Berlin, he was appointed by the Elector of Brandenburg, Dec. 22, 1691, as professor of Greek and the Oriental languages, and in 1698 ordinary professor of Theology in the University of Halle; being also appointed in 1691 preacher at St. George's Church in Glaucha (suburb of Halle), a post which he exchanged in 1715 for the pastorate of St. Ulrich's, Halle. After his left side was paralysed in Nov. 1726, he patiently endured much suffering till his death on June 8, 1727, at Halle ( Koch , iv. 305-322; Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, vii. 219-231). Francke was the spiritual son of P. J. Spener, and became one of the leaders in the " Pietistic" movement which so powerfully influenced Germany, 1680-1750, raised the tone of the community after the depression of the Thirty Years' War, revived the educational system, began systematic provision for the poor, and refined and purified domestic life. Francke was the spiritual leader and teacher, and under him and the band of professors that gathered to Halle, Halle became the headquarters of Pietism. During his time Halle sent out some 6000 graduates in theology, men imbued with his spirit, good exegetes, and devoted pastors, who spread their doctrines all over Germany, and in the early decades of the 18th cent, occupied a majority of the pulpits. The extensive buildings at Halle, which now bear the title of the "Francke Institutions," are a monument of his simple faith and philanthropic zeal. He began at Easter, 1695, by opening a room in his house for instructing the poor children of Glaucha, with a capital of about thirteen shillings. About Whitsuntide, 1695, were the beginnings of the Paedagogium, 1697 of the Latin School, 1698 of the bookselling and apothecary businesses, 1705 of the mission to the East Indies, 1710 of the Bible Society. On a place formerly occupied by beer and dancing gardens, the foundation stone of the great Orphanage was laid July 13, 1698, in a spirit of humble faith in God and fervent prayer, trusting to Him for the means to pay for the work as it progressed; and week by week as they were needed the supplies came in from far and near. In this work, as in regard to his sermons and lectures, Francke had great opposition to meet, but the Commission of Enquiry which his enemies procured resulted in a cabinet order of 1702, which is the Charter of his Institutions. In 1727 there were 134 orphans in the orphanage; and besides these 2207 scholars in the various training schools, of whom some 360, as well as 225 poor students, received daily rations; while in 1863 the value of the buildings was about £45,000., and nearly 3500 scholars received instruction. Distinguished as a professor, as a philanthropist, as a pastor, and as a preacher of gospel simplicity and soul-stirring earnestness, Francke was not prolific as a hymnwriter. Only three hymns are known by him, two of which are:— i. Gottlob em Schritt zur Ewigkeit. New Year, first published in his Schrifftmässige Anweisung recht und Gott wolgefällig zu beten, Halle, 1695, p. 534, in 12 st. of 7 l., as a "Morning and Evening" hymn, entitled "The Voice of the Bride (‘When shall I come and appear before God?’), which she raises as often as she completes a step of her mortal life; and may be used by an upright and believing soul instead of the [usual] morning and evening hymn, as also at other times." Reprinted in the Geistreiches Gesang-Buch, Halle, 1697, p. 294, Freylinghausen's Gesang-Buch, 1704, &c, and is No. 623 in the Unverfälschter Liedersegen 1851. According to Koch, viii. 176-179, it was written immediately after his expulsion from Erfurt, Sept 27, 1691, while on his way to his mother's house at Gotha, and "in the experience of the overflowing consolation of the Holy Spirit." In the spirit of his favourite motto, "Quocunque die ante aeternitatem uno stamus pede," and based on 2 Cor. v. 6 and Rev. xxii. 17-20, it is modelled on a hymn by J. V. Andreä, 1636. "Gottlob ein Schritt zur Ewigkeit Ist abermals vorbei." Koch adds that in his lifetime Francke found cases where this hymn had been blessed, that two days before his death he caused the hymn to be read to him, and said, "My faithful Jesus, I have given myself to Thee, soul and body that is sure;" and that on the day on which he died, June 8, 1727, this hymn was one of those sung at the choir meeting at Herrnhut. The translations in common use are :— 1. Thank God, that towards eternity, a full and good translation by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 2nd series, 1858, p. 9. In 1860, 1 l. 1-4 of st. i., iv., vi., viii., greatly altered, and beginning, "Bless God, that towards eternity," were included as No. 74 in the American Episcopal Hymns for Church and Home. 2. Oh wouldst Thou in Thy glory come, a translation of st. iv., vii.-xi., founded by Miss Winkworth on her 1858 version, and given as No. 173 in her Chorale Book for England, 1863. Other translations are: (1) "Another step is made with God," in the Supplement to German Psalmody, ed. 1765, p. 50. Previously in Select Hymns from German Psalmody, Tranquebar, 1754, p. 79. (2) "Thank God! towards Eternity," by J. Gambold, as No. 626 in pt. i. of the Moravian Hymnbook, 1754 (1886, No. 1232). (3) "Thank God! another stage of time," by Dr. H. Mills, 1856, p. 227. ii. Was von aussen und von innen. Cross and Consolation. A fine hymn of trust in God, founded on Ps. lxii. 5-8. Written in memory of Eleonore, neé Kubitz, wife of J. H. Michaelis, professor at Halle, and appended to the funeral sermon preached by Francke on Ps. lxii. 2, in St. George's Church, Glaucha, Nov. 1, 1711. Included as No. 500 in Freylinghausen's Neues geistreiches Gesang-Buch, 1714, in 9 st. of 8 l., and recently as No. 2250 in Knapp's Evangelischer Lieder-Schatz, 1837 (1865, No. 1997). Lauxmann, in Koch, viii. 508-512, speaks of this lady as one who suffered severe afflictions, but "what from without or from within pressed on her soul she bore in quiet waiting on the help of the Lord, of Whom she could at last gratefully say 'He hath done all things well.'" Lauxmann adds, "This hymn is also a beautiful clear mirror of Francke's own thought and conversation, heart and life experiences." In his Segensvolle Fussstapfen, 1709, he was able already to relate thirty instances in which the Lord had enabled him to receive, exactly at the time when he needed it, pecuniary help in answer to his prayers during the building and conducting of the great Orphanage at Halle. Of this hymn (which should be read with the history of his great work at Halle) the only translation in common use is:— What within me and without, a good and full translation by Miss Winkworth in the first edition of her Lyra Germanica, 1855, p. 126 (st. iii. being added in the 2nd ed., 1856), and thence as No. 139 in her Chorale Book for England, 1863. With the altered first line, "Lord, Thou art my Rock of strength," three centos are in American common use:— 1. St. ii., iv., vii., ix. in Boardman's Selections, Philadelphia, 1861. 2. St. ii., vii., ix. in the Pennsylvania Lutheran Chorale Book, 1868, Dutch Reformed Hymns of the Church, 1869, and Bichards's Collection, 1881. 3. St. ii., iv., ix. in Robinson's Songs for the Sanctuary, 1865, and the Hymns & Songs of Praise, N. Y., 1874. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology

William Henry Furness

1802 - 1896 Person Name: W. H. Furness, D.D. Author of "Feeble, helpless, how shall I" in Sunday School Service Book and Hymnal Furness, William Henry, D.D., born in Boston, 1802, and graduated at Harvard in Arts and Theology, 1820. From 1825 he has been an Unitarian Pastor in Philadelphia. He is an accomplished scholar, and has been an active worker in reforms of various kinds. His publications are numerous and include a Manual of Domestic Worship, 1840, and a translation of Schiller's Song of the Bell. His hymns are somewhat numerous, and several of them have great merit. The best and most widely used are:— 1. Father in heaven, to Thee my heart. Resignation. Appeared in The Christian Disciple, 1822. It was repeated in this form in some of the older collections, and a few modern hymnals, including the Boston Unitarian Hymns [& Tune] Book, 1868. In 1846 it was given in Longfellow and Johnson's Book of Hymns as "Father in heaven, to Whom our hearts;" again in their Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, and in Dr. Martineau's Hymns of Praise & Prayer, 1873. This hymn is sometimes ascribed to "H. Ware," but in error. 2. Feeble, helpless, how shall I? Jesus our Leader. First published in the Cheshire Unitarian Christian Hymns, 1844, No. 272, in 5 stanzas of 4 lines. It is in several modern collections, including Lyra Sacra Americana, 1868: Thring's Collection, 1882. 3. Have mercy, 0 Father. Divine direction desired. Contributed to Dr. Martineau's Hymns of Praise and Prayer, 1873, in 2 stanzas of 6 lines. 4. Here in a world of doubt. Psalms xlii. Contributed to the N. Y. Lutheran Collection, 1834, and repeated in his Manual of Domestic Worship, 1840, Martineau's Hymns, &c, 1873. 5. Here in the broken bread. Holy Communion. Appeared in the Appendix to the Philadelphia Unitarian Collection, 1828. It is in a few modern collections, including the Boston Unitarian Hymn [and Tune] Book, 1868. 6. Holy Father, Gracious art Thou. Purity & Peace. Contributed to Dr. Martineau's Hymns, &c, 1873, in 1 stanza of 12 lines. 7. I eel within a want. Likeness to Christ desired. Appeared in the Cheshire (U. S.) Unitarian Christian Hymns, 1844, No. 687, in 4 stanzas of 4 lines. It is in a few collections both old and new. 8. In the morning I will raise [pray] . Morning. Appeared in his Manual of Domestic Worship, 1840, in 6 stanzas of 4 lines, and repeated in Dr. Martineau's Hymns, &c, 1873. In Longfellow and Johnson's Book of Hymns, 1846, and the Boston Unitarian Hymn [& Tune] Book it begins with stanzas ii., "In the morning I will pray." 9. 0 for a prophet's fire. Holy Communion. Published in the Appendix to the Philadelphia Unitarian Collection, 1828, and repeated in the Cheshire (U. S.) Unitarian Christian Hymns, 1844, and later hymn-books. 10. Richly, O richly have I been. The Prodigal Son. In his Manual of Devotion, 1840. In Longfellow and Johnson's Book of Hymns, 1846, and their Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, it is given as "O richly, Father, have I been"; whilst in Hedge & Huntington's Hymns for the Church of Christ, 1853, the Boston Unitarian Hymns [and Tune] Book, 1868, and others, it opens with stanzas ii., "Unworthy to be called Thy son." 11. Slowly by Thy [God's] hand unfurled. Eternal Light. Given in his Manual of Domestic Worship, 1840, and repeated in a few hymnals. In Drs. Hedge & Huntington's Hymns for the Church of Christ, 1853, the first line was changed to “Slowly by God's hand unfurled." This is the reading of the Boston Unitarian Hymn [& Tune] Book, 1868. Dr. Martineau retains the original reading in his Hymns, &c, 1873. 12. Thou only Living, only True. Ordination. In Dr. Martineau's Hymns, &c, 1873, where it is dated 1868. 13. To the High and Holy One. Consecration of Church. In Lyra Sacra Americana, 1868. From this is taken "To the truth that makes us free" (stanzas ii.), in the Boston Hymns of the Spirit, 1864. 14. What is the world that it should share? Invocation of the Spirit. Given in The Christian Disciple, 1822, and Dr. Martineau's Hymns, &c, 1873. It begins with stanza ii. of his hymn "Here in Thy temple, Lord, we bow." In Lyra Sacra Americana it reads, "Oh, is there aught on earth to share." 15. What is this that stirs within? The Soul. Appeared in his Manual of Domestic Worship, 1840. In 1844 it passed into the Cheshire (U.S.) Unitarian Christian Hymns, No. 318, and later into numerous collections, both old and new. Furness died in 1896. [Rev. F. M. Bird, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) =================== Furness, W. H., p. 402, ii. His Verses, Translations, and Hymns were published 1886. Of his hymns the following, in addition to those on pp. 402-3, have come into common use:— 1. She is not dead, but sleepeth. [Death and Burial.] 2. That God is Love, unchanging Love. [God is Love.] This is in several American collections, including the Boston Unitarian Hymns for Church and Home, 1895, where it is dated 1892. 3. Thou Who dost all things give. [Seeing the Unseen.] This is dated in The Pilgrim Hymnal, 1904, as having been written in 1860. It is from the Author's Verses, &c, 1886. Also in Border's Treat. of Amer. Sacred Song, 1896. Dr. Furness was b. April 20, 1802, and d. in 1896. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)


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